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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1865, 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massa- 

Stbbxottpsd bt G. J. Peters & Son, Boston. 

PsBss OF Geo. C. Band & Aybbt. 



very heart of the jierils of war. So only could be made 
these easy vivid pictures of the bearing, and very 
feeling, of the soldiers of the Union in camp, on the 
march, and in battle. They are not efforts, but just 
the play of the light and shadow of the army-life 
through a true soldier's soul. 

If the cheerful humor of the book be varied now 
and then by an ' indignant protest against some 
abuse, — a " grumble " as he calls it, — it will not be 
forgotten that there was occasion for it, and that it 
was for use, not for spleen; written for a public print, 
not muttered in the ranks for soldiers' discontent. 
Such protests of the army, heard at home, righted 
many a grievous wrong. 

In the preparation of the letters for the press, 
such typographical changes have been made as were 
needful; some paragraphs of a merely temporary or 
local interest have been omitted; and they have 
been thrown into the form of chapters; such dates 
only being preserved as are necessary for keeping in 
mind localities and the current of events. In each 
of these particulars, the example of the author him- 
self in the publication of " Dunn Browne Abroad " 
has been followed. 

I wish also to express here the gratitude due to 
Professor Tyler for permission to use in this volume 
the biographical part, so discriminating and appre- 
ciative, of his sermon preached at the funeral of my 

A. S. F. 

L NonoB 

DiadpUne . a9-43 


Hew ExporleadoB. — AntlfUm. — UQdor Flro. — The Buttle. — Afler 
IheBatlle.— The WuaU; of War 4*-£l 


Food.— Cli'aDllnesa. — Utter-wrillng. — Officers mid Uen. — Cberao- 
teror Ihe Soldiera. — Sunday la Camp- — LeCtcr-dAj . . . . S2-flO 


SDldlcrii' Lu^Bge. — Wholesomo Advice. -> Rctleeaoo. — Kewspupcri 
In Cump fil-SO 


Cooking la Camp.— DgCiIIb of a Saldiei>a Ule.— " Quiet on ttii^ Foto- 
IBBO" 67-71 


Woirj nod Waste of War. — Weterlon Hotel Confliaed Moie- 

menta. — Hlamaoageraenl ..............-.-< 72-76 



Sunday on Picket. — God knows no Waste. — Sunday Musings . . 76-79 

John Brown's Headquarters. — Guarding Deserters 80-83 


Abuses. — Fatigue Duty. — Discontent. — Official Neglect of Army 
Comforts and Necessaries 84-89 


On the March. — Gen. McCIellan superseded— Arrival of Baggage. — 
Gamp Architecture 90-93 


State Elections, and what they signify. — Travel and Travail.— Belle 
Plain.— Away from the Enemy 94-99 

IhanksgivinginCamp.— Public Services.— Dinner 100-106 

Battle of Fredericksburg. —Its Horrors. — The Evacuation . . 106-109 


Spirit of the Army.— How to take Reverses.— How to fight. — The 
Twenty-first Massachusetts 110-114 


The Mud Campaign.— A Movement thwarted.— Bumside exonerat- 
ed.— Winter Battles.- Connecticut Copperheads 116-120 

• •• 



Dunn Brown vs, the <* Portland Press." — Criticisms on the Battle 
of ChancellorsYille 167-171 


Intemperance in the Army. — Influence of Example.— Common Sense 
in Military Matters 172-176 


Toward Gettysburg. — Desolation in Virginia. — Hard Marchingf.— 
Bull-Run Battle-ground. — Before the Battle of Gettysburg. — * 
Speculations. — The Battle.— Hard Fighting and Victory. —Re- 
treat of the Enemy 177-191 


Description of Battle of Gettysburg. — Conduct of Soldiers. — Mortali- 
ty among Officers 102-197 


After the Battle.— Delay and Impatience. — Confidence in General 
Meade.— Seyerity of the Battle. —Hope for the Future • . 198-201 


More about the Battle.- Pennsylyania Germans. — The Cemetery. — 
Williamsport. — Escape of the Enemy. — Harper's Ferry. — North- 
em Copperheads 205-213 


London Valley. — Exploit of a Hero. — Brave Deeds. — Bloomfield. — 
Dunn B-owne in Command. — Masterly Strategy and Successful 
Retreat 214-223 


The Draft und the Drafted. ^A Pri'Bslug InvllallOB. — Anny Mote. 

c n A r T E R xxxin. 

Conrt-inartliilled.— It) Ladicrous Anpecu. — AcquliisL— ncDefilonc, 
—The Bines.— NBlurii lildlug Battle-nelds l»l--ja.7 


Tlie Drafled. — Shftm Lornlty. — Fstrioiiam dinraiiBed. — Edwnrd 
Eterell sad Commntatlon-money. — The NeoessiltcB of Ibo 


SnbiUtnteB. — Their Ciiaracler. — Copaling Iba Cuat. — ApnlhJ. — 
Drafted Med cf.SubKtIuitcs 'Jiii-iiili 


8llIIl^le^^IIl»^le^a. — EHtcl of Wor on Ilio Border-Stale roople,— 
TtiB Copperhead u a Friend to the Moutli. — Tlie Copperhead as a 
Martyr 25?-sea 


Snsda)' la Camp SS3-SAS 


ATull Apologf. — TrlalBDf aCorroapandout 26a-aM 


How Brother Jonathan conducts a War. — Sumler bepoming Im- 
pregnable — Froapecta iW-l'S 



Tlie Army in Motion. — Cedar Mountain. — Neglect of Soldiers' Com- 
forts.— An Execation.— Shirks 276-284 


On Picket near the Bapidan. — Recruits.— Thieving. — Whiskey and 
Intemperance 285-291 


Strategy.- On Picket near Bull Bun.— Bristow Station. — Wasted 
Bations 292-296 


The Qreat Virginia Express Line 297-298 


Camp near Warrenton. — " Close Up." — Speculations. — Incredulity. 
— False Charges of Cruelty. — The English People .... 299-305 


Come to the Front. — An Appeal to the Country for Be-enforce- 
ments 306-311 

Large Bounties. — Their Injustice 311-316 


Beforms. — " Quiet on the Potomac.'' — The Longest Purse decides the 
War 317-321 


A Thanksgiving-dinner. — The Bequisition and the Beality . • 322-325 

• • 



Political Economy. —* Taxation 380-383 


Parting Gramble and Advice.— Keflections on Rations. — Soldiers like 
to be talked to by their Officers.— On the Road.— Ghancellors- 
irlUe 384-3iK) 


SAMUEL FISKE was bom in Sbelburne, Mass.. July 
23, 1828. He was. tbercfore, at the time of his death, 
nearly thirty-six, — just on the meridian of man's allotted 
day of life. His parents (Dea. David and Mrs. Laura 
Severance Fiske) still live to mourn the loss of the son be- 
neath whose roof they dwelt for several years, and (o whom 
they looked as the aheltor and the auppnrt of their declin- 
ing years. Their intelligence and mord worth, their ex- 
emplary piety, tbcir moderate circumstances, their efforts 
and sacrifices to educate tbeir children, and the char- 
acter and life of those children, are known tn you all. 
The childhood and early youth of Samuel arc better 
known to you than to me ; though I cau readily believe 
that be waa then the same bright, lively, restlcas. funny, 
loving and beloved little sprite as in after-ycnre, — the light 
of the homestead, the life of the school, the head of all 
hia olaasos, and the leader in every enterprise. 

• From the funeral aermon of Profaaaor W. S. Tylor, of Amlieral 


He pursued his studios preparatory to college in 'Am- 
herst Academy ; finding his home and making his living 
the while by liis kind and skillful ministering to a helpless 
paralytic, who still lives to mourn the death of his ** dear 
hoy,^^ — thus foreshadowing the double service which he 
was to render to learning and charity in riper years, and 
training himself to minister to the sick and suffering, as 
very few of his sex and still fewer of his scholarly attain- 
ments can do, with almost the tact and tenderness of a 
Florence Nightingale, on the banks of the Nile and in the 
Array of the Potomac. 

Entering Ainlierst College in the autumn of 1844, as, 
T believe, the youngest, and, as I know, the smallest, and, 
as liis chissmates will all agree, the brightest and smartest 
of his class, he took at once high rank as a scholar. Per- 
haps his forte was in mathematics ; but he excelled also 
in the classics and all the departments. Easy to learn, he 
required less time than perhaps any of h\s classmates to 
master his lessons. Indeed, quick as a lightning-flash, 
he seemed to see things by intuition. Nevertheless, he 
was a model of industry and economy both in time and 
money. And well ho might be ; for his time was worth 
saving, and- his money was all transmuted into durable 
nchcs, while many students, without half of his wit or 
any of his wisdom, rely on (heir mother wit as supersed- 
ing the necessity of exertion, and many a man, without a 
tithe of his genius, pleads his genius as an excuse for 



^^^Hkavuguiicc, anil all the vices of wbicb oxtravjgniice '\s 
^^^TSe fruitful molher. Dependent chiefly on his own earn- 
ings for his eiluciUion. he worked in a bindory by day, and 
studied hy night. Ho probably labored on ihe binding 
of every college catalogue which was issued while he waa 
tt college student, and several editions reecivod their dress 
entirely at his hands. Jo this way he Eometimes becume 
so fatigued and oshausted, that inono or ivo instances, I 
remember, by eheer phyBica.1 necosaty, be fell asleep in 
the recitaCion-rooiit. But when hie name was called, ho 
Beemed lo know by instinct how far the lesson bad pro- 
ceeded, and was ready, on the instant, to take the ligiited 
torch from bis predecessor, and cany it forwanl i>ii the 
gallop U> tlie classmate who was to succeed Lim, I re- 
member just where he sat and just how be looked when he 
wiis a Junior under my own instruction. In my mind's 
eye I see him now, curled up in the comer of his seat, 
scarcely occupying more room than a kitten, playful as a 
kitten too, still the boy, and yet in promise the coming 
man of the class, his eye flashing with interest, liis face 
beamiag with intellectual life and joy, and his whole body 
vibrating and throbbing in sfwntaneoua sympathy with hi= 
active mind, — thelivingimpersonationof Dr, Busbnell's 
doctrine of " Play ; " for with him work waa play, study 
a pleasure, duty his delight, as it doubtless will be tti 
Ho gniduated in 1848 with the second appoint' 
— be would doubtless have had the first but for the 


necessity of working so much with Lis own hands, — and 
at Commencement he delivered a Salutatory Oration as 
full of fun as the grave and stately ** Lingua Latina " 
could carry. 

While his whole life in college was thus exemplary, 
he set a good example especially in his early attention to 
the **one thing needful." It was during the winter 
term of his sophomore-year that he became personally 
interested in the salvation by Christ, and began his reli- 
gious life. And in the summer term of the same year, 
on one of those sacred festivals, — Pentecosts they have 
sometimes seemed, — so many of which have gladdened 
the ey6s and the hearts of the ofl&cers and students of 
Amherst College, he stood up with a large number of the 
leading scholars of his own and other classes, and, in the 
presence of a great congregation of young men, conse- 
crated himself to the supreme love and service of the 
Triune God, — the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, 
— whose name and seal had been placed upon him, in early 
infancy, in the ordinance of baptism. 

After teaching two years at South Hadley, in New 
Jersey, and in the Academy at Shelbume Falls, and 
studying theology two years at Andover, in 1852 he 
returned to Amherst, and spent three years as a tutor. 
Still a mere Freshman in apparent age and size, and 
mistaken for such when he first came upon the college- 
grounds, some of the fathers of the freshman-class were 

I disposed to p 


patronize the yonng man, and more fatherly 
jophoraorea undertook tn give hira good adyico toiipbing 
his duty to his svperiorg. He enjoyed the mistake too 
well to correct it ; and hia amusement waa only erjualed 
by thoii' surprise when they discovered their error by 
finding him in the tutor's chair, and themselves pitting 
under his instructioa. About the same time, a ulergymun. 
laboring under the same mistake, asked him if he proposed 
to enter college. He replied, that bo had about made up 
his mind to take a shorter course into the ministry. The 
clergyman proceeded to argue the point, insisting on the 
superior value of a college education ; when the tntor en- 
lightened him Iiy saying, " Poihapsyon do uot understand 
my reasons for not enl«ring college ; it is because I have 
already been through, and know aU about it by esperi- 

Perhaps Tutor Fiake learned too easily himself to be 
quit* patient with dull scholars. Perhaps his own mind 
waa too creative and discursive to fasten the minds of his 
pnpib upon (ho routine of the lesson, and drill them with 
the utmost thoroughness in the rudiments of the languages 
and the mathematics ; though I do not think he waj par- 
ticularly deficient in tbb duty. But he awakened theii- 
attention, quickened their intellect, taught them to think, 
and to express then" thoughts in clear, pithy, and forcible 
language. His classes will remember hia playful sallies 
ud pungent sayings aAer they have quite forgotten bis 


direct instructions ; and the impulse and the suggestions 
which he communicated to them will linger with them 
while memory lasts, while character endures. 

It was during his tutorship in Amherst College that ho 
was licensed by the Franklin Association, and began to 
preach the gospel. His sermons were full of thought, full 
of illustration, suggestive and impulsive to a rare degree. 
They were also inwardly charged, nigh unto bursting, with 
wit and humor. He could not always keep his wit and 
genius out of his prayers.* His prayers were not like 
any other man's prayers ; his sermons were not like any 
other person's sermons. He was a manifest and marked 
original. At the same time, it was his sincere desire and 
constant study to be useful in the pulpit. He was more 
than an entertaining, he was an instructive and impressive 
preacher. Preaching as he did in very many of the 
pulpits of this section, and still retaining his youthful ap- 
pearance and small stature, he became widely known as the 
boy-minister of Hampshire and Franklin Counties. 

I have the impression that the staid old churches of the 
Connecticut Valley were a little afraid of him, lest he 

* A prayer of his in the pulpit, " that the Lord would bless the 
congregation assembled, and that portion of it which was on the 
way to church, and those who were at home getting ready to come, 
and that, in his infinite patience, he would grant the Benediction to 
those who reached the house of God just in time for that," was an- 
swered by the breaking-up of a bad habit, which many appeals had 
fkiled to effect. — Ed. 


should dLilurl) thoir gi'avity, and perclinDce not wfdlt ui- 
aetly in the boaten patba. However ibnt may be. bo was 
not in a burry to settle in the minialry. He wanled to 
see more of the world, and know more of men and things. 
With tills object in view, sliortly after closing bis tutor- 
ship, in 1855, he «et sail for Europe and the Enst, and 
spent a. year partly in studying the French and German 
languages, but chiefly in traveling over the oountrios on 
and near the Mediternineitn. In the greater part of this 
tour, in which he visited the lands of the Bible and tbo 
classics, and set foot on each of the three quarters of the 
Old World, it was my iiappiness to be his traveling com- 
panion. And, when I sayit was my happineK, I mean 
jast what I say ; and our whole party, consisting at difl'er- 
ent times of from half a dozen to a do;ceu educated mun. 
will agree with me in Baying that we all counted it 
among the chief felicities of our tour that we had him aa 
H Itind of guide and liiatoriogriAphar of our expedition.* 
He was, its every one who was at uil acquainted with him 
would know be muat he, a model tnivehar. genial, sym- 
pathiidng, alwaya ebeerful, often plnyfol, inexhaustible in 
mt, nevei- at a lot's for an expedient, moater of himself, and 
more than a mateh for Greeks and Jews, Arabs and Turlis, 

* As Bn iUnstratioii. ne migbt refer to a highly appreciative 
" Remiaiacenco of Cspt. Fisko" Id n recent number of tlia "-lournal 
oTOommerco," by William C. Prima, author of " Boat Life in Egypt 
Mil NnblB," " Tonl LIfa in the Holy Lund," &o. 


believers and infidels ; spending less money, seeing more 
of men and things, and bringing back more of the proper 
results of travel, the pure gold and jewels of foreign 
lands, than any other traveler who has fallen under my 
observation. It was in chronicling the progress of this 
tour in letters to the ** Springfield Republican " that he 
apsumed the characteristic nom de plume by which he has 
wncc been known to the public as one of the most racy, 
witty, and spicy of all our newspaper correspondents. It 
would doubtless be deemed extravagant to say that Dunn 
Browne, or any other one man, was Charles Lamb and 
John L. Stevens put togetlier ; but I do not hesitate to 
affirm that there is more genuine wit and humor in that 
little unpretending volume of his "Experiences in For- 
eijjn Parts " than in the collected works of some of our 
professed humorists, and, at the same time, more of just 
and graphic description of foreign lands than in many a 
ponderous tome of tourists by profession. He had the 
poet's eye to see the essence of things, and the painter's 
hand to draw with a few strokes their essential features. 
How many scenes throng my memory and live again in 
my imagination, of which he could truly say I — 

"Quflcqueipse . . . vidi, 
Et quorum pars magna fui," — 

and which are indissolubly associated in my mind with his 
characteristic appearance in them, or his humorous concop- 

I tion an 


tion and desciiption of them, — hia astouisliment, tar 
instance, eoon after landing in France, to find that they 
spoke such had French in Paris ; decrying niina at Rome 
and at Naples; eomplainiDg that Mount Vesuvius ad- 
journed a promised eruption till after his departure ; 
rescuiug our [larty from troops of Arabs and donkeys in 
Cairo and at the Pyramids; guiding the professor, as with 
the thread of Ariadne, through the lahyrinthine quarries 
under Jemsilem ; and after all, with the uneuspecting 
innocence of a child, leaving his shoes, and liaving them 
stolen by the villainous attendants at the gales of the 
Mosque of Omar : hut, whatever else ho might lose, never 
losing his temper or his self-possession ; and, whatever else 
he might fail in, never failing to win the admii'ation and 
love of all around him. 

Of his minijlry at Madison, Coqu., I have no personal 
Itnowledge. But, from sueh information as has reached 
rae from time to time, I infer, that though hia wit and 
humor were chastened by wisdom and suhdued by oipori- 
euce, yet he entered the ministry there the same marked 
original that he was in the college and in foreign travel ; 
that while, for this reason, some doubted, and others 
feared, the great majority of his people had the good sense 
to perceive the rare merit and promise that lay beneath 
these eccentricities; and the small minority were soon won 
and inspired with confidence by his practical wisdom, pe^ 
feet ingenuousness, and manifest consearation to his work ; 


and that his pulpit and pastorate had become a groat and 
growing power in the church and the community when his 
senes of duty constrained him to devote all his powers and 
all his influence to the service of his country. Certainly 
the people of his charge demonstrated their confidence 
and their affection by their reluctant consent to his going 
into the army, their repeated extension of his leave of 
absence in preference to accepting his tendered resigna- 
tion, and their patient though anxious waiting for his 
return. And never did any people give more affecting 
proof of the sincorest love to a pastor than the people at 
Madison have furnished in the unwearied ministries with 
which they have followed liim from the moment they heard 
of his wound to this the day of his buiial. The presence 
of his nearest and dearest relatives and friends could 
scarcely be more giateful to his feelings in his last days 
than the affectionate assiduities of his church ; and, among 
all the moving scenes of this affictive occasion, nothing 
has so touched my heart as the ceaseless love and care 
with which I have seen their delegation watching over the 
lifeless remains of their beloved pastor. 

An incident occiirred at his examination for ordination 
whicb is so characteristic, that it may well be preserved as 
a kind of miniature likeness of the man and the minister. 
One of those ** minute " theologian^, sticklers for the 
straitest school of Orthodoxy, who are to be found in every 
ecclesiastical council, insisted, with not a little vehemence, 


on a (lefinilo answer to the test qnestion, whether, in the 
case of the wan who hsA the withered hand, it waa the 
man that healed himself, or whether it was the Lord that 
healed him. " Well," replied the cnodidate, " I alwnys 
supposed that the man had a /land ia it." The heuuty 
of the answer ia, that the theology ia as faultless as the 
wit. The same tact and versatility are said to have 
marked all hb intercourse with his people. He was a 
match for any of them anjTphero : he was at hume with 
all of them everywhere. He could hold a plow or 
drive a teaoi, if need bo, equal to any fermer in the par- 
ish, lie knew how work ought to be done, and how 
busineas ought to be transacted, as well as any mechanic or 
merchant or banker ; and ho made all this knowledge 
avaibbie in the most unpretending way in his preaching 
and pastoral visits. If necessary, he could he about on 
his own grounds and among his people nearly all the 
week, and'when the Sabbath camo, like Dr. Lyman 
Beeclicr, astonish everybody with the power and richness 
of his sermons, maife rich and powerful, in pai't, by this 
very means. But, when the Providence or the Spirit of 
God seemed to call for special and earnest labors, he 
would plead with his people in the pulpit and from house 
to house, day and night, with the eloquence of an angel 
frora heaven ; nay, aa an ambassador of Christ, in Christ's 
ttead, and with the sympathizing and beseeching tender- 
nesB of Ohrist, he would pray them to be reeonciled to 


God. And not a few, won by these entreaties and by cho 
winning words and ways of' his daUy religious life, accom- 
panied by the power of the Holy Spirit, came out from 
the world, and, from one communion to another, joined 
theuiBelvea to tbo people of tho Lord. To human view, 
his ministry was all too short, — about seven years : bxit in 
God's view it was a perfect number ; and, when that nuui' 
faer was complete, the com of wheat must fall into the 
ground and die, that it might bring forth much fruit. 

Unable to turn a deaf ear to the call of his suffering 
country, he enlisted ns a private, and was chosen second 
lieutenant in one of the companies of the 14th Regiment of 
Conneetieut Volunteers. He was afterwards promoted to 
the rank of firet lieutenant, and then of captain, in Com- 
pany ,0, — a company that was raised considerably among 
bis own people. He was for some time assistant inspectr 
or-^neral of the brigade of Gen. Carroll, and for a time, 
also, an officer on the staff of Gen. Alesan4er Hays.* 
In one or other of these capacities, he took part in 
nearly all the great battles of the Army of the Po- 
tomac, saw his regiment cut to pieces and reduced to a 
mere skeleton, was himself taken prisoner and confined in 
the Libbj Prison at Richraoad, and, after his exchange, 
fought on with the spirit of a hero and a martyr, till on 
the Cth of May, the second day of the bloody battle of 
the Wilderness, he received the wound which caused hiB 
* Killed on thesome field and da; without. Fiske. 


death on Suoday, May 22, 1864, a week ago to-day, in 
the hospital at Fredericksburg. The hifitoriographer as 
weil as tho hero of the campaigna in whieh he bore ao no- 
ble a part., Dana Browne photographed from time to time 
Iba most striking scenes of the ctinflict in a aeries of letters 
to the "Springfield Republican, "which for tmth andfailli- 
fulness, wit and humor, burleaquc and pathos, strangely 
intermingled, have no superior, perhaps no equal, in all 
tho journalistic literatore of tho war- 
As he visited the people of his charge on furlough last 
spring, and administflred to them the sacrament ; as ho rc- 
risited the frienda of his own home and his wife'a, among 
the mountaina, — they all entreatfid him to resign his cap- 
taincy, and return to hia pastorate. But duty and honor 
both forbade his leaving the army in such a crisis, on the 
eve of the campaign to which ho looked forward as bloody 
indeed, hut prohahly decisive of the issue of the war and 
the fate of the country. He roturnod to the field of con- 
flict with a aadness that was unusual, perhaps with a dis- 
tinct presentiment of what was before hun, and received a 
mortal wound in the great battle that opened the cam- 

Dr. Jewett, the medical ofBcer of his regiment, and his 
professional attendant during hia last daya, communicates 
to tho "Springfield Republican" the following account of 
his wound and of the aubsequcnt scenes : — 

" His regiment, the 14th Connecticut, was in the corps of 


tlie gallant Gen. Hancock, and for seTcral hoars had sostained 
it5 position in the line, repakingone or two inrioas charges of 
the desperate rebel hordes. Capt Fiske fell at the head 
of his companr, shot through the collar-bone and top of the 
rijsht lun'T. He was asnsted to the rear, and rode on horse- 
back to the hospital of his divi<ion. more than a mile distant. 
He received immediate sorgical attendance ; but all efforts to 
extract the ball proTed anavailing. The next day he was 
placed in an ambulance, and conveyed to Ely's Ford, on the 
Rapidan, on the route to Brandy Station. As the country 
was infested by guerrillas, the route was abandoned, and the 
whole ambulance-train ordered back to Chaneellorsville, and 
th«ncft to Fredericksburor, makinsr a ride of fortv-eight hours 
over rough roads. At the end of the route, I found him in 
a stati; of great exhaustion and fatigue, which was the case 
with hundreds of other wounded men in the train. Comfort- 
able quarters were provided for him in a private house, and 
«v<?ry thing which could be done for his comfort or recovery 
wiiH don(}; but, after suffering for sixteen days, he has died, 
luavirig a large circle of friends to mourn his loss. His dear- 
Mtt and xwwi intimate friends were with him, and did much 
to HOfithe and comfort his last days, and receive his last 
bli^NHitig and farewell. His amiable wife watched by hisbed- 
m\i^ day and night with the most solicitous and affectionate 
vnns ; liiH hImIct and brother were also present with kind at* 
litfttionrt and loving words ; and, amid the tears and sincere 
n^^ri'.tM of bin friends and associates, he gently breathed his 
Iftut, juHt lit the close of the holy Sabbath, when stillness 
n'igfH'.d, and Nature seemed to be paying him a last tribute 
of renpc(!t." 


Tho follomng estimuts of bis character ie from the game 
intelligent, impartial, and reliiible source : — 

" CapL Fiske was in many reapei:ts a remarkable man. Be- 
ing posaeased of decided natural taleatj and a brilliant inlel- 
lect, the odraiitagea of a classical education bad made him a 
man of inflaence, and capable of forming and uuntrolling 
public ECntinient. His religious character was strong, and 
was evident in his evtry-day Ul'u. His religion was not of 
that austere and formal kind which ia often repulsive, bat 
genial, gloiring, and exhilarating; exhibiting itself in his con- 
versation, in bia habits, and seeming to be the main clement 
of his character. His diiiposition was eminently kind and 
tnondly ; his intercourse with his associates, alTcctionato and 
pleasant; and tlie tears which will be shed by his comrades 
and companions in arms will lie honest and sincere. We 
shall all feci Iiis lo^ ; for we have lost a faidifiil friend, a wise 
eounEelor, and a pleasant companion. His country will feci 
hia loss ; for she loses a brave soldier, a fearless and able ad- 
vocate, and a sincere patriot. His family and numerous 
relatives will keenly feel his loss; for he was a kind and 
aSectionalu liusband, a loving and indulgent parent, a son 
and brother, whose loss will be most deeply felt by those who 
were most intimate with him. The literary world will misa 
him ; for be was a very fluent writer, an able author, a spicy 
and popular correspondent, as the numerous readers of the 
'Bepublican' can abundantly testify. His loss will be exten- 
^vely fult in the reUglous world ; for he tras a faithful pastor, 
an eloquent preacher, clear and convincing in his reasoning, 
and a firm and sincere Christian. A brilhant light was ex- 


tin^ulshcd when he ceased to exist ; but we have reason to 
believe that the unseen things of eternity which he described 
are now a reality to bim, and that he has opened his eyes 
upon that bright world of light and glory where he often told 
us to lay up for ourselves treasures which would never cor- 

" A clergyman by profession, he was long in doubt whether 
to leave his field of labor for the military service ; but his pa- 
triotism was of a practical kind, and he considered it his duty 
to fight for the salvation of the Grovemment, which was en- 
gaged in a lifc-and-dcath struggle with treason. He acted 
with the utmost honesty of purpose, and cheerfully exposed 
himself to the dangers of all the principal battle-fields of the 
Army of the Potomac during the last two years. In the 
hard-fought battle of Antietam, and before the deadly hights 
of Fredericksburg, he acted well his part ; being thrice pro- 
moted for meritorious conduct (having entered the service as 
private). During the first Chancellorsville campaign under 
Hooker, he was acting as one of the staff-officers of the gal- 
lant Gen. Carroll ; and was captured, and carried to Rich- 
mond as a prisoner of war. He was at that time reported 
killed, and his death was published. He served with honor 
and applause through the Pennsylvania campaign, and battle 
of Gettysburg, and during the various fights and skirmishes 
of the autumn in the vicinity of Culpepper and the Kapidan ; 
and has now fallen in the great struggle which is still going 
on for the possession of the rebel capital, and the overthrow 
of treason, slavery, and rebellion. 

" There being a vacancy in the office of chaplain of his regi- 
ment during the past winter, it was the universal wish of the 


members of the regiment that he ehonld accept tic portion ; 
and the officers jtuncd in a formal request to him to accept 
iL He declined on accouat of tlie men of hla own comjiatiy, 
who had enlisted for hia sake, as he prclerred to share with 
them the dangera of the battle-field. He possessed die con- 
fidence and resjiect of his own mun and of every member of 
the reghnent ; and his mouraiDg friends and family have Oijr 
most sincere sj-mpathy in this thar great affliction." 

The following afiectiouate tribate to his memory will 
illnstrate the honor aod esteem in which he was held by 
in the b 

"I have marc-hed by his gide, and have gathered instruc- 
Uoa and renewed love of counirylrom his tongue and heroic 
essmplu, when shiyering orer the smoldering bivouac-fire, 
and passing through dangers that threatened us both. When 
fatigue and privation shook my zeal, his glowing words and 
smiling resignation cast all gloom away, put strength and 
vigor in my reins, and made our cause seem doubly glorious. 
He was a man. that felt and did his whole duty; never 
Sinching or holding back, but pushing straight on, he strove 
with his wbole might to do his part in crushing this infamous 
Eebellion. lie was one of those noble, self-sacrificing spirits, 
who never think of self, but do for others every thing, for 
themselves nothing. His uniform kindness and genial-hearl- 
ednesB mdde friends for him with every one. Every officer 
and man that met him found in him the magoet of attraction, 
which bound him to them, whilo living, in indissoluble bonds ; 
and now, in death, the busy hand of Time will never wipe out 


the traces of affection from their hearts. A brave and 
tlioroughly loyal soldier, a thorough Christian amid all trials 
and temptations, an upright man among men, free to a fault, 
and possessing a heart too big for his breast to cover, possess- 
ing virtues more angelic than human, he has gone from us. 
God grant that we may find more like him, ready to yield 
up every thing for the cause and the country ! In life we loved 
him dearly, and in death we venerate and revere his mem- 
ory. Feeling that the regiment and the country have lost 
more in this one man than in numbers of others, we can only 
say, however hard it may be, * Thy will be done ! ' " 

I am credibly informed that the brave general with 
whom he was associated for a time as a staff-officer en- 
tertained the most profound respect for Capt. Fiske, not 
only as an officer, but as a Christian and a Christian min- 
ister. Though not himself a church-member, and not 
altogether free from the besetting sins of the camp, he 
always invited his adjutant to invoke a blessing at his 
meals, and made him at once his most intimate companion, 
and virtually his private chaplain; and when he heard 
that the captain was no more, bewailing with tears his 
personal bereavement and the public calamity, he declared, 
that, if all Christians were like him, few could resist the 
claims and attractions of personal religion. 

His intelligent, unaffected, cheerful piety commended 
itself alike to the lofty and the lowly. The soldier who 
was detailed to be his cook and camp-boy, won by the 



bewtj of bis character, and overcome by an affectioniiti; 
appeal fi'otn hia dying bed, resolved to lire tbenceforlh a 
Cliristiau. Tbe bearts of rebels and enemies were toutiied. 
One of the first families in Fredericksburg guTe up ibeir 
best parlor for bis dying chamber, gathered beautiful flow- 
ers for bia bedside, and vied with friends in tbeir liind 
Bttentions. A loving wife, a dear eUtcr, an afibctionate 
brother, devotfid comrades, bent over bim, ready to give 
their own lives to save his; and did all that human wis- 
dom, human love, and human power, could do for bia 

But weeping friends and admiring enemies, a praying 
church and an imploring country, skillful physicians ami 
angeis ministering in human form, are all powerless to 
arrest the great destroyer. Gcnias, learning, eloquence, 
patriotism, and piety furnish no exemption from that call ; 
" There 18 no discharge in that warfare," All these, with 
all the wealth of his love for his family and his people, he 
laid a free-will offering on the altar when he enlisted in 
tho service of his country, counting them as dross in com- 
poiisOD with the sacred cause to which he bad devoted 
himself; and tbe costly sacrifice was accepted at his 
hands. He never regretted it; never wished to take it 
buck. He died, as he lived, calm, thoughtful, cheerful, 
trustftil, with per/erf (thatwashisownebaracterlEtio word, 
repeated again and again in answer lo questions of \aa 
IHends) — sektbct trust in Uod, perfect faith and hope in 


Christ, perfect satisfaction with God's plans for himj per- 
fect reliance on the atonement as availing for him with all 
his unworthiness, perfect though humble assurance that 
he was going to a better country than that for which he 
was laying down his life, and to better friends than even 
father, mother, sister, brother, wife, and child, whom he 
was leaving behind, — leaving, however, with perfect confi- 
dence that he should never cease to remember and to love 
his country and his friends in heaven. His reflecting and 
inquiring mind, his practical wisdom, his consideration for 
others, his playfulness even, did not forsake him, but con- 
tinued to the last. When a surgical examination had 
removed the last ground of hope for his recovery, and a 
chill came over him which he took for the last, he said, 
** Now death can't be far oif ; *' but presently he added, 
"Heaven is a better country than this.'* Then, turning 
to his brother, he inquired, '* Asa, do you think heaven 
comes right off; that is, immediately after death ? Well, 
I shall be there, and know all about it, pretty soon." Then 
followed messages of love to absent friends, tender words 
to those by his side, particular charges touching his "dar- 
ling" children, and thoughtful instructions about his 
affairs, — all as calm and tranquil as if he were in perfect 
health. The last night of his life, as his brother was sit- 
ting by his side at midnight, he seemed to be awake and 
thinking: presently he said, "I have been running 
every thine over in my mind to see if I had left any thing 


undone towards thera ; " roo3Dmg bis wife and children. 
" I can't tliink of any thing I have left." When aasured 
that he had Temembered every thing, and had nothing to 
do bat just to lay himself in Jeaua' arms, and rest, " ho 
smiled aa if wsll pleased ; " and when asked, " Y'ou can 
love and trust him ) " be said, " Yes, I can, perfectly." 
They repeated hymns to him, such aa "Jesus, lover of 
mysonl,'' and " Rock of Ages, cleft for me; " and he re- 
peated them af^r them. His brother happening to pass 
between him and the light, he asked, " Who is that ? " 
"Your brother Asa: you must not forget him." In- 
filantly carrying the significance of the words forward to 
that world whither he was bo soon going, he said, " Hea- 
ven must bo a very forgetful plaeo if I do." Sabbath 
;, the day of his death, he greeted his sister with 
t salataUon, " To-day I shall get my marching orders : 
a ready." His brother asked hiin how he had 
" Oh, beautifiilly ! " be answered ; " just like a 
Eleeping angel." Then ho smiled, and added, "But T 
don't look much like one, do I?" Thus cheerfully did 
he obey his last orders ; thus naturally did be die, just 
as ho lived, just like himself; thus beautifully did he 
pass from the Sabbath on earth to the Sabbatb in heaven. 
And now he has fought his last fight, and conquered the 
last enemy. Now ho has explored the better country, and 
knows all about it. Now be ?ooi« like an angel, and sings 
a fiong which not even angela can sing, since it ia snng 
only by those who are redeemed out of the earth. 


We have not time to sketch the character of our friend. 
Nor need we. Ilis character was embodied in his person, 
and expressed in his life. His heart was in his hand, and 
on his tongue, and in his face : it suffused his counte- 
nance, and was poured like an oil of joy over all his actions. 
He was a genuine man ; free from affectation and art ; in- 
capable of disguise or concealment ; a mortal enemy to 
shams and all mere seeming; as natural, simple, open, and 
ingenuous as a child. He was eminently QhWA-lihe. 
When, three years ago, he came to Amherst with his wife 
and first-born child, — to enter him, as he playfully said, 
in the freshman-class, — they seemed like three children ; 
and in feeling it was not easy to say which was the youngest 
or the happiest of the three. If he who is the most child- 
like is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven, then Sam- 
uel Fiske was an eminent example of true greatness. 

He was a genial man, cheerful in his temperament, 
social in his nature and habits, happy in his physical and 
mental constitution, happy on Christian principle, and a 
perennial fountain of happiness to all around him ; charm- 
ing his immediate circle, and cleaving to his friends as he 
clung to life itself, yet broad in his sympathies ; one of the 
laity, though a clergyman ; though a scholar, a man of the 
people ; and, while an ojfficer, abhorring red-tape, expos- 
ing abuses in the army, and defending the rights of the 
common soldiers as if he were himself in the ranks. 
Whether in himself or in other men, the man was always 


more to him than the profession, more than any or all of 
the accidents aad appendages of the man ; and this vos 
one aeuret of his power over all sorts of men in so many 
dificrent rolatlona. 

He was u genuine son of New England. Strong com- 
mon ^nse, Yankee tact, shrewdness and thrift, downright 
honesty and plainness of speech aud manoers, ineshuust^ 
ible versatility and fertility in expedients, formed the 
solid basis of his character. To these were added thoM 
more brilliant and dazzling qualities, rapidity of thought, 
readiness of expression, fine conversational powers, genu- 
ine mother wit, spontaneous und irrepressihle mirthfulnesa, 
and a fancy which reveled in puns and incongniitiea. 
These various powers, disciplined by the best culture of 
the schools, and further cultivated by rare opportunities of 
foreign travel, were all so subject to his command, that 
at a word, under the most distracting eiroum stances, they 
passed instantly from the most unrestrained license to the 
most impUcit obedience ; and, further guided and con- 
trolled by Christian principle, they wrought with intense 
eoer^ in the accomplishment of high moral and Christian 

He was eminently unselfish. I would not speak of hiiu 
as self-denying or solf-aacrificiiig: for duty never seemed 
to require any aelf-denial ; doing good, any effort ; nor re- 
ligious principle, any sacrifice. It seemed aa if it were 
spontaaeoiis. It set naturally, easily, gracefully, n[5on 


Um. It was his second nature. It was himself. There 
was nothing artificial or assumed ahout his religion. He 
was incapahle of any thing like cant or affectation in the 
ministry. Very few men can go into the pulpit without 
standing more or less on stilts, and speaking with more or 
less of the professional tone ; but his voice and manner in 
preaching, and even in prayer, were the same as in ani- 
mated and earnest conversation. Samuel Fiske, the Chris- 
tian and the minister, was only the man, Samuel Fiske, — 
as Ood had made him, and as he had been able to make^ 
himself with the blessing of Qt)d, — sanctified and con- 
secrated to a sacred service. This was his idea — and it 
is the true idea — of Christian piety. Hence, in his 
view, there was no incompatibility between the ministry 
and the military service. He was a soldier of Christ in 
the pulpit ; and in the army, on the battle-field, in the 
deadly charge, he was still Christ's minister. He girded 
on the sword, which now lies on his coffin, with the same 
high consciousness of a sacred duty, and in the same 
spirit of Christian love with which he wielded the sword 
of the Spirit, which is the word of God ; with the same 
entire devotion to the service of God and mankind with 
which he offered, if the rules of the Board would admit, 
and the missionaries thought it expedient, to stop at Bey* 
root in the midst of his travels in the East, and give himself 
up to the work of foreign missions. From the time when 
he became a Christian, while a sophomore in Amherst 



College, till that Bacred Sabbath when he jinldcd up his 
Ufe in the hospital at Frederickaburg, he felt tbut be was 
not his own ; that he was willing to serve Gtd anywlicre. 
and coulil trust bim eyeiywberc to take care of bis bodily 
life, and to sanctify and save bis soul. Hit piety wtia as 
all-porvading as bis wit, aa genial aa his naturei as real 
and beaatifal as his whole character. Nay, it was the 
erovming beauty of the whole. He lies before us to-day 
a sacred synihol of the principles and spirit, tlio sufferings 
and sacrifices, the hopes and issaca, — the unspeakable 
sacrifices, glorious hopes, and ultimately certain triumph- 
ant issues, — of this war. Not one of Ma talents will be 
lost. Not one of hia sufferings and sacrifices will be in 
vain. They are all a pai-t of the price that must be paid 
for the redemption of the country. Every drop of bis 
blood will be a jewel in the crown that will ono day adorn 
the brow of redeemed and disinthralled humanity. 

It is sad (a see such & sacrifice ; yet it is a beautiful 
sight. — such a character devoted to such a cause, such a 
life rounded and finished in such a service ! It is painful 
to think of what we have lost on earth ; but it is delight- 
ful to think of what we have gained in heaven, where 
alone our Jewels can be safely treasured, and our true gains 
be preserved imperishable. If he was so attractive on 
earth, what will he be with all those powers, all those 
attractions, all that wit and genins and large-beartedness, 
sanctified and perfected in heaven ? And what will heaven 


be, when all the heroes and martyrs, all the gifted and 
sanctified ones whom we have known and loved, and who 
have lived and died in the same sacred cause or for like 
holy purposes, are gathered there in the presence of their 
great Captain, to commune with him and with each other, 
rejoicing in the conflicts and triumphs through which he 
has led them, for evermore ? 

Nor is he lost to us here. His body will rest just where 
he chose to have it rest, — on the borders of that beautiful 
valley which he so much loved as the birthplace of his 
intellectual and spiritual life ; which, in the last chapter 
of his ** Experiences in Foreign Parts " (aft«r seeing all 
the most celebrated countries and cities of the Old World), 
he declared to be ** the sweetest smile on the face of the 
globe," "the best paradise yet discovered out of Eden; " 
**in its fresh spring morning, in its effulgent summer 
noon-tide, in its gorgeous autumnal sunset hues, and in its 
silvery winter moonlight, surpassing all other most favored 
climes, each, too, in its own especial perfection.'* And 
his spirit will look down from heaven, the guardian angel 
not merely of his own family and his own church, not 
merely of his own company and regiment, but of the Army 
of the Potomac, and all those unspeakably precious inter- 
ests of patriotism, humanity, and religion, for which that 
army is contending. Methinks I see him, with the souls 
of innumerable other martyrs of liberty and reli^on, 
pleading before the altar of God, and crying, ** How long. 


O Lord, boly and truo ! dost tfaou not avenge our blood on 
the oppressors sod pcrsecatora of oar raoc'f " And thi-n 
methjolts I see him reviating the scono of conflict, and 
hear hiu re-animatmg his fellow-soldiers, ay. and ull \m 
fellow-country meii, In the same stirring worda which hurst 
from hia dying lipa in one of his (reasons of mental wan- 
dering: " Forward, boys, lo the last charge ! " 

Gathered aa wo are to-day, from every part of the coun- 
try, for his hurial, — relatives, neighbors, citiicna of this 
and other towns, delegates from hia college and his church, 
represeutalivcs of the army and the press, a great multitude 
of weeping friends and sympathizing strangers, — white 
wc gaze on hb lifeless body, still wearing the pierced and 
bloody uniform of the service, as wo drop a tear on those 
mute but speaking wounds, let us Icam a new lesson of 
self-saciilice from his life and death ; and swearing eternal 
hostility to rebellion and oppression in all its forms, and 
perpetual devotion to the rights of man, the religion of 
Christ, and the kingdom of God, let us go forth to the 
conflict, shouting the watchword, "Forward to the last 
charge ! " against the enemies of God, our country, and 


btjnn bbowne in camp, nkae wasuinoton.* 

Sept. 1,1863. 

YOUR old correspondent baa been able to restrain 
bis warlike inclinations, and remain in the quiet per- 
fonna.nirQ of bis professiional duties, until tbi^ last grand 
rally of bis conntrjmen to tbe iiold of battle. But, wlien tbo 
tbree bandred thousfind additional volunteers were called 
for, it was no tise for bira to stand it out any longer. One 
tbree bundred tbousandth of that call was for him undoubt- 
edly. So professional engagemeniB were at once split 
open by tbo wedge of a year's vacation, wife and baby 
bastily disposed of at fathers' houses, property of n mova- 
lakiud suppbod with wings, and put to a. basty diglit; 
i three weeks from tbo time of tbo first decision sees 

» TliB 14111 Conn. Vol. Infunlry was miwil In Ccnlriil iind Soath- 
«m Conneclical dnring tha period of dwpoudBncy -which followsrl 
HoClellnn'9 lUsiistroan Pealnmlar tMiTniini^. Its organization was 
[ate in Augast, tSBS, — nbout tho dale of Pope's Dull- Ran 
I wna Rt once ordered to Wasliiitglon ; nhence, afiet lillle 
n weelt'B lialay in camp near Fort Elhiizi Allan, it woi 
bd np through MiirrlHud into the buttle of Aiitielflin. 


the peaxjeful citizen clad in military costume, and quite at 
home in the life of a camp, — yes, even now within the 
sound of booming cannon, and with a regiment that sleeps 
on its arms every night, expecting an attack. 

News, of course, you cannot expect from me, except 
by an occasional favorable accident. What you may ex- 
pect in the lettets I mean semi-occasionally to send you 
are some impressions of life in camp; some random 
sketches of things that seem most striking, most uncivil^ 
and out of the way of our ordinary peaceful life. 

The first observation every man would make, judging 
from my brief experience, is that the soldier's life is an 
eminently dirty one. Our boys, on their way to the field, 
slept on the dirty decks of a steamer, lying together as thick 
as rows of pins on a paper ; were packed in dirty, close cars, 
like sheep in a pen ; and marched through dust so thick 
and fine, that, mixed in proper proportion with the perspi- 
ration caused by the intense heat, it formed a good plaster 
cast of every man's face and form. Water is often too 
precious to waste in ablutions ; linen gets dirty ; washer- 
women are scarce ; clothing of every kind grows ragged ; 
and, on the whole, dirt steadily and surely prevails, till a 
regiment of veterans appears to one uninitiated like a regi- 
ment of ragamuffins. Experience has already shown us, 
also, that a soldier's is sometimes a pretty hungry and 
thirsty life. For three days together, in our first week, 
we had nothing to eat but a few hard crackers, and once 


B morsel of cheese and once a slice of ham apiece served 

round ; and for one nigbt 
water in camp. 

And again: ours is an 
nights ago wo were in com 
knapsaclis all around ua ; 
fiir awity from botli, lying 
weather, with nothing bct^ 
thin rubber-blanket. Oi 
with lights, fires, s 
all 19 silence, fires 

and part of a hot day we bad no 

amazingly uncertain life. Two 
ifortable tents, with baggage and 
last night and to-night wg are 
on the cold ground, in rainy 
seen us and the open sky but a 
le night the camp is all alive 
louta of langhter; tlio nest 
1 talk almo.'^t in whispers, 

and lie on their arms, expecting a momentary attack. The 
HOldier knows least of all men what a day may bring forth. 
His to-morrow may hold in its bosora for him starvation or 
plenty, a thirty-milea' march or perfect idleness, the din 
of battle, the shout of victory, the shame of defeat, the 
pain of wounds, or ihe closing scene of death. 


An army la a big thing, as anylmdy will realize who 
Bis on a high bill as I do, and sees the ground it occupies. 
There are about a thousand acres of soldiers visible from 
thia point ; and we have passed miles and miles of army 
wagons on our way up the Potomac to re-enforce Bum- 
fide, or cut off Jackson, or whatever business it is that we 
are going upon, which you probably know a great deal 
bettfir than any of us do. It is a tremendously tug thing. 


of which we are a part at this present time, I assure you. 
We move on up the country, through woods and vales, 
on roads and on byways, in three long parallel anaconda 
lines, no one of which is ever all visible at once, which 
seem absolutely interminable, and of whose numbers we 
here can scarcely form an idea ; and, when we double up 
and crowd together at night for a bivouac, we cover the 
whole face of the country round about like a cloud of lo- 
custs, as' thick and as destructive. Acres and acres of 
soldiers, but not an acre- of corn or potatoes or fruit, or 
any thing else eatable within a circle of miles, I suppose, 
and that, too, though we have been here only a night. 
A crop of soldiers kills out any other crop in the quickest 
possible time. Our orders against plundering are very 
strict too, and guards generally placed over property. It 
seems to be impossible to keep an army from destroying 
every thing through which it passes. The orders are strict 
enough ; but a strict enforcement of the great principle of 
obedience seems to be utterly repugnant to the spirit 
of our citizen soldiers. I am sorry to acknowledge it, and 
yet more sorry to see and believe, that our soldiers very 
generally are, or soon become, a set of lawless plunderers ; 
and the older the regiment, the more bold and expert in 
petty larceny ; and the older the regiment too, the more 
undisciplined and disorderly, and the less inclined to go 
into a battle, or perform the duties of a soldier any way, 
so far as I have yet seen. Hundreds of men, and dozens 


of officers m the old regiments of MuCleUaa's and other 
armies, havo told me tbat tbcir long marches and fiervant's 
work in the trenchea, and lack of food, and privations, had 
constantly demoralized our men ; that they had grown 
neglectful of discipline, and yielded to dirty and disorderly 
liahita, I hope this may not he univeraally or generally 
true. But I must say, that of all the armies I havo oyer 
seen, including the three hundred thousand Allied and Eus- 
sian troops in the Crimea after their tremendous campaign, 
and hardly escluding even the army of the Paaha in Egypt, 
that which is intrusted with the defense of our United-States 
Government is in appearance the dirtiest and the least or- 
derly. I suppose the rebels are even superior to us in 
these respects, but cannot yet speak from observation. 
Our new levies I am sure ought to be good material to 
make efficient soldiers out of; but even a Bovereign Ameri- 
can citir^n nmst condescend to obey orders, and consent to 
discipline, in order to become a valuable soldier. 

Your correspondent personally is getting hardened fa- 
mously to camp life. Last week he ceased to scrape 
together leaves on which to lay his blanket for the night. 
Last night, for the first time, he didn't take the trouble to 
pull out the sticks and stones for bis bed of earth ; and 
henceforth the nearest spot on the bosom of his mother 
earth wiU he his ehosen pillow. 


State of SIabtlasd, os a Hnji. 

THAT ia not very definite, to bo sure : bat we are 
witHii a few tnilas of Harper's Ferry, and about 
tbo saino from Hagerstown, and in tbc midst of a. moat 
tveinendou3 cannonadintr on all our roaroh for the last two 
days; the meaning of which I presume you know, but we 
do not very well. Our batteries, howover, are pitching 
ehot and shell into the enemy at a deafening rate about a 
mile on our right ; and ihe enemy are responding very 
nearly as rapidly, and many of their missiles come over 
our heads and among ua. One lieutenant has just Btopped 
out from a regiment adjoining ours to get a nearer 
view ; and a solid shot struck hia foot, and crushed it. A 
lieutenant-colonel's horse is torn all to pieces on the other 
side of us a moment since, leaviug the bridle hanging to 
the fence. A pair of artillery horses close behind us have 
juat been grazed by a ball, whioli linocked off the pommel 
of a saddle from the back of one, and cut the crupper-strap 
clean from the other, without hurting or scaring either of 
them. About a dozen shot and shell have passed over 



our heads, and stniok in the midst of us (Gen. French's 
division, a few regiments of it), wilhin the past fifteen 
minntes. I suppose they are not really intended for ns, 
tut for our batteries, which are playing on them. Still T 
don't tnow that it would be any great consolation to yonr 
correspondent, having, for instance, one of his well-shaped 
legs taken off by a rebel shot, to think that it wasn't done 
on purpose. Our boys stand the firo, on tho whole, I 
should say, nobly. A few squat or cronch when they hear 
the whistle of the shot or the ecreech of the shell. A few 
stand quietly, and watch the field to see where the niis^e 
Btrikes. Some shout, some swear, some, I hope, pray. 
Some would skedaddle if they dared to, I donbt not. I 
hope it will be long before any one in our ranks will dare 
to do that. 

Now, don't suppose from what I am writing yon that 
we are in the midst of a battle. It is only a small artil- 
lery skirmish so far as we here are concerned (though 
there are plenty more big guns firing far away in the dis- 
tance) ; bnt, as it is the first time I have been netnally 
under fire, I have spoken of it more particularly. The sit- 
uation is not, I contess, a pleasant one to me. (The firing 
b over for the present.) I had no disposition to run 
away, and indeed didn't see any very favorable place to 
escape &om shot which fell in front, on both sides, find us 
muoh as a mile in our rear. But tbe feeling of being ex- 
posed to the mangling effects of those murderous messen- 


gers of dcstrnction is far from an agreeable one. You 
can caleulnto the probabilities as being ja thousand to one 
or (en thousand to one against your being struck ; bat 
somehow that one chance looms up rather disproportion- 
ately in your view. However, your correspondent is 
liappy to be able to close with the assurance, that as yet, 
though having been under fire, he has not been hit. 

Battle-Field, Sept 18. 

Well, I have at last turned over a new and bloody leaf 
in my experience, and seen a battle, and am now writ- 
ing you, sitting in a newly plowed field all strewn with 
the dead of our gallant Union soldiers, still unburied, ly- 
ing as they fell ; fourteen of the 88th New York, of 
General Meagher's Irish brigade, lying, for instance, only 
two or three rods behind our present position, all in one 
line as they dropped at one deadly volley poured in upon 
them as they rushed forward on the gallant charge which 
did so much to win for us yesterday's hard-fought day. 

It has been a tremendous battle we have passed through, 
and one in which victory has crowned our arms ; for we 
hold the whole field, and have taken many prisoners ; but 
of the precise results, or even of the forces engaged, or of 
the probabilities as to a renewal of the contest, you will 
know, ere this reaches you, a hundred times more than I 
can yet tell you. It is astonishing, the ignorance of us, 
who are actually playing the soldier's part here, of what 




were expected to do, i 
fired at tboir own men. 
nable article, plentiful a 

is going on around us ! We cannot get any information 
anyhow. The moat absurd and contradictory rumors cir- 
culate through the camp. What wo see with our own 
eyes is all that wc can believe, as a general thing, and 
Bometimes scarcely that. The battle itself was a scene of 
indescribable confusion. Troops didn't know what they 
d sometimes, in the excitement, 
Generals were the scarcest imagi- 
they are generally supposed to 
bo. Wo neither saw nor heard any thing of our division 
commander after starting on our first charge early in the 
morning, but went in and came out here and there, pro- 
miscuously, according to our own ideas, through the whola 
day. The part I saw of tho fight was something lite this: 
The enemy held a very largo cornfield, surrounded on the 
three sides (on which we were obliged to attack) by a 
steep anil difBeult ravino. On the north, east, and south, 
we advanced to the attack ; our batteries playing over our 
heads. Our regiment came in from the north-east to attack 
on the north, being the second line ; the first line, a few 
rods before us, being corapoaed of a Delaware and one 
other regiment. As we came along even with tlie cast 
line of the rebels, we also entered a cornfield, and at 
once were opened upon by a raking fire of musketry ; and 
a good many of our men fell. The north end of onr line 
pressed on till we came round facing the enemy on the 
edge of the ravine ; and we opened fire upon them 


across the ravine, firing into the com wHch concealed 
tbem from our view. After a few minutes, the troops 
wbo bad tried to cross tbe ravine before us broke, and 
came running back upon us, crying out, some of tbem, 
** Skedaddle, skedaddle ! ' ' Some of our men tried to stop 
tbem ; and a few of tbem, it must be confessed, joined in 
tbeir fligbt. But in tbe main, for green troops, I tbink 
we bcbaved well ; tbe men firing witb precision and delib- 
eration, tbougb some shut tboir eyes, and fired up into tbe 

Finally, after a straggling and confused scene of about 
an bour's figbting, advancing and retreating, carrying off 
tbe wounded, and cbecring eacb otber on, some of our own 
troops came up between us and tbe enemy on tbe oppo- 
site side of tbe ravine, so tbat it was dangerous for us to 
fire any longer ; and we retired, and attempted to advance 
on anotber side, but could get no place, and so drew off 
and supported a battery two or three hours till all its 
horses and ammunition were shot away ; we exposed all tbe 
while to a fire of grape and canister. (Here we saw and 
helped away Gen. Richardson, wounded.) And finally, 
towards evening, tbe enemy being driven from all tbeir 
positions, we were picked up by a stray general, and or- 
dered to bold an advanced position across a plowed field, 
where we were within reach of tbe enemy's skirmishers, 
wbo have been practicing on us ever since; in which 
dirty and uncomfortable place I must bid you good-by for 


the present. Our regiment loses seventj-fi\-c to a hun- 
dred killed and wounded ; others, uiiiny more. The fight 
raged many houis. Old officers snid the musketry-lire 
vaa the hottest they eycr heard. 


The excitement of hattle comes in the day of it, but 
the horrors of it two or three days after. I have just 
passed over a part of the field, I euppose only a small purt 
of it, and yet I haye counted nearly a thousand dead 
bodies of rebels lying still unburied in groves and corn- 
fields, on hill-sides, and in trenches. Three hundred and 
fifty, I WHS told by one who helped to bury them, were 
taken this morning from one long rifle-pit which lay just 
in front of where the 14th (among other regiments) made 
their fight, and were buried in one trench. The air grows 
terribly offensive fi'om the unhnried bodies ; and a pesli- 
lenee will speedily be bred if liiey arc not put under 
ground. The moat of the Union soldiers are now buried, 
but some of them only sljnihtly. Think, now, of the hor- 
rors of such a scene as lies uU around us ; for there are 
hundreds of hoi'sus too, all mangled and putrefying, scat- 
tered everywhere ! Then there are the broken gun-car- 
riages, and wagons, aud thousands of muskets, and all 
sorts of equipments, the clothing all torn and bloody, and 
cartridges and cannon-shot, and pieces of shell, the trees 
torn with shot and scarred with bullets, the fami-honaoa 


und bnriiH knocked to pieces and burned down, the crops 
truinplud und wasted, the whole country forlorn and deso- 
late. And yet I saw over all this scene of devastation 
and horror, yesternight, one of the loveliest double rain- 
bowH that ever mortal eyes looked upon. It was as if 
hi;:iveii sat serone over human woes and horrors, and 
crowned all the earthly evils with the promise of ultimate 
most glorious good. I took it as an emblem of success to 
our blessed Union cause, that out of the horrors of battle 
shall arise the blessings of a more secure freedom, and a 
more stable system of liberal government. The enemy has 
retired in disgrace from liis bold invasicui of the North with 
forty or fifty thousand men loss than he entered upon it; 
and, after all our disasters and blunders and waste, let us 
hope that the successful end is beginning to draw nigh. 

The waste of this war is tremendous beyond all concep- 
tion. It would take a long time to reckon that of this 
one battle. Thousands and thousands and tens of thou- 
sands of muskets, stacks of guns, piles of guns like big 
pihis of rails, muskets laid up against rocks and trees, and 
muskets scattered yet over the ground and choking up 
water-courses, muskets i-usty and broken and dirty, spoiled 
and half-spoiled, that a few days ago were bright in the 
hands of living men, are only one item of the waste. 
Whole regiments threw away their overcoats and blankets 
and every thing that encumbered them, and they were 
trampled in the rush of conflicting hosts; and so with equip- 


ments and stores and ammunition and every thing else. 
Waste, waste, ruin and destruction. Why, I saw whole 
immense stacks of unthreshed wheat, big as barns, scat- 
tered in a few minutes over a hundred-acre field (the same, 
I think, from which it had been reaped) just as bedding 
for the soldiers for a single night. Much of this waste is 
unavoidable. Much of it might be helped. Just as it 
is said, that, out of the waste of an American kitchen, a 
French family would live comfortably, so it might almost 
be said, that, out of the waste of an American war, a Euro- 
pean war might be carried on. But I must make no more 
waste of ink now. 



Bolivar Hiohts, Sept. 24, 1863. 

DID you ever see a brigadier-general riding along on 
liis splendid charger, with a string of sweetrcom ears 
hanging on his left arm, and onion-tops peeping out of his 
saddlc-bags? I did yesterday, and observed his look of tri- 
umph in the possession of the aforesaid articles, greater 
than if he had gained a battle. And I saw a colonel 
chuckling over a plate of peaches, which he had in some 
way captured for his mess-table ; and a major spurring joy- 
fully into camp with a couple of live chickens tied to his 
saddle-bows. I also can speak from experience of the rap- 
ture of a starved and generally-used-up lieutenant over the 
possession of a loaf of real bread, — the firs-t that had made 
his heart glad for weeks. I tell you, dear *' Republican,'* 
you haven't any idea of the blessing of a decent meal of 
victuals. You don't know the treasure you possess in a 
boiled potato, bursting its tight jacket, and revealing its 
hidden mealiness, as it comes smoking upon your dinner- 
table. Such a sight would bring tears to the eyes of 
thousands now crunching their hard crackei's, and drink- 
ing their decoction of beans which Uncle Sam passes off 



npon UB as coffee, npon these barren bills. As for mj- 
self, I ebould faint at tbo very Btnetl of a delicate chicken- 
broth or a barley-soup, and at the thought of a bowl of 
bread and milk : ah, dear me ! it ia too much. I mast 
change the subject. 

I was oat with a brotheimfBcer the other day, washing 
in a muddy brook : we had hung up our checkered woolen 
shirts on some bushes, while we plied the soap and sand 
in scouring our outer man. A little group of old Boldiers 
pas^g by espied tlie shirts, and one lisclaimed lo the 
others, " gorry, boys I come and take a look at these 
clean shirts these chaps are going to put on I " I at«uro 
you, ■' Republican," on my honor aa a United-States sol- 
dier, we had worn these sjtme shirts over a. fortnight, and 
jet, to the eyes of those Teterans in rags and dirt, they 
seemed the very n* plug ultra of eleaniineas. Things are 
all coraparative in this world. 

I suspect we are to remain in this vicinity a little while, 
and refresh ourselves and got ve-onforceraonts, and bo 
ready to sweep the rebels down through Virginia a few 
weeks hence. I should think most of McClellan's army 
was in the vicinity, and the rebels are hard by. But it 
must be that we can got men, and munitions of war, faster 
than they. Our troops are in tine spirits and courage, 
bnt weak with diarrhoaa from insufficient and improper 
food, fatigue, and exposure. The management of the 
comraissanat of our army must be very defective or very 


dishonest. And indeed the want of thorough organiza- 
tion, and a system of checks and of strict responsibility, 
is the great and almost fatal curse in every department 
of our military affairs. I wonder how we gain any sw 
cess, when I compare these things with what little I havi^ 
seen in other countries in the same line. We couldn't 
we hadn't the best materials for soldiers the world ever 

Do I bore you with my letters without news, a4d 
confused accounts of things very partially seen, and d^ fj|^ 
casional soldierly grumblings about lack of food and -^ 
the mismanagement of superior officers? Well, set it 
down partly to indigestion, and partly to the necessity of 
writing that a man is under who has once allowed him- 
self to fall into the habit. Fault-finding is the easiest 
kind of writing to which one can turn his hand ; and write 
somehow and somewhat a man must who has ever been an 
editor or a minister or a lawyer, or any thing of that kind, 
as you very well know. I don't want to write. I don't 
mean to. I never sit down to it but I wish I was done. 
And yet, by the strange necessity of which I have spoken, 
no sooner is a halt ordered, be it at sultry noonday, or in 
the shades of evening before the twilight is gone, liO 
matter how weary the limbs, nor how inappropriate the 
place, — sometimes sitting on a fence, with my ink-hom 
stuck into a rail (by the way, I mention, as a strange cir- 
cumstance, that I haven't yet observed in the State of 
Virginia a specimen of that style of fence known as the 


" Virginia " fence) ; sometimes in the front seat of a bag- 
vgage-wagon, with the horses eating their hay fix)m between 
my feet ; sometimes on a stone by a brook, with my bare 
feet cooling in the running water ; again, squatted on a 
furrow of a plowed field with bullets whistling all around, 
[* or diting by the flickering light of an unusually bright 
camp-fire at midnight ; in health or in sickness, in battle 
or on the march, so long as the ink holds out, and a sheet 
of paper can be begged or borrowed, — the old habit holds 
its power, the stream of correspondence doesn't run dry, 
jeomplacent friends pretend to be pleased with one's faith- 
fulness, newspaper columns are burdened, and after-din- 
ner readers perhaps keep awake. So look out for more 
of the same, and many like them ; and even if you should 
read in the bulletin that Dunn Browne had fallen in an 
leroic charge upon the enemy's battery, waving his sword 
id cheering on his men, &c., you may still expect 
one more farewell epistle, written perhaps in red ink, and 
showing the ruling passion strong in death. 

This region where we are, the scene before us from 
these bights where we are encamped, does really seem too 
lovely to be the seat of a horrid war, a paradise too sweet 
for the Devil to enter with his polluting presence. But 
the devil of war is a mighty fiend ; and he is laying his 
strong hand of desolation heavily on this particular re- 
^on ; sweeping down the noble forests and groves, and 
crowning these hills, instead, with frowning batteries; tram- 


pling down the crop-laden fields; burning farm-bonses, 
stacks, and bams; and leaving villages in rains. Har- 
per's Ferry itself, occupied and given up so many times 
by each army in turn, is a woeful picture of ruin and de- 
struction, but romantic and picturesque to the last ; more 
interesting, perhaps, in its ruin than in its former beauty. 
All the public works and most of the private baildings 
are a heap of rubbish and cinders. 


News I can't tell you ; but how the soldiers feel here 
in camp and in battle and on marches I can tell you, for 
that I see and know. When you read from newspaper 
correspondents and '* reliable gentlemen " that the army 
are ** full of enthusiasm," ** and eager for the renewal of 
the conflict; " that they ** have entire confidence in their 
generals," and " rush joyfully to battle under their gui- 
dance as to a feast," — I doubt not your common sense 
teaches you just about how much such gammon is worth. 
The simple fact of the matter is, that the soldiers univer- 
sally, every man of them, so far as my observation goes, 
dislike war and dislike battles, as all good citizen-soldiers 
should ; dislike to be killed with shell or Minie bullets, 
or to be starved to death, or to be marched to death, just 
as much as other men do. Indeed, they are all other 
men than soldiers by profession or preference. But they 
have come to war reluctantly, from the pressure of urgent 


necessity and a strong eenae of duty ; and tbey want the 
war over within the quickest possible time. And they 
are not satisfied with their genonils, because they have 
eommoit sense enough to see, that, ^th souie few cscep- 
tions, our armies are not well managed, nor well provided, 
nor well led into battle ; that their strength, tbeir ener- 
gies, their lives, are to a, very great extent wasted. The 
soldiers are aware, howefer, that this state of things is 
hard ta remedy. They endure it, they bear the privations, 
B. great part of which they know to be unneeosBaiy, with 
less gruinbliog than the people of any other nation under 
heaven wonU utier. They gn into battle, aware that it 
is pretty much a chance whether tlieir bravery antl endur- 
ance will be of any avail, with a oheerful resolution that 
does them the highest honor. I glory in our common 
sohliers ! I do not despair of the country when I see the 
materials that compose the army (or hec defense. The 
Government may dally with the foes and difficulties it has 
to encounter. Greedy contractors and corrupt officiab 
may eat up our resources. Incompetent and traitorous 
commanders may viaata our tremendous armies. All the 
more credit to the unbroken and unconijuerable spirit of 
our people, that is carrying and will carry our cause 
tbrough in spite of every obstacle, and at the cost of 
whatever sacriSoe. Of course, I am saying this of tbs 
men in general of our armies. Some of thera are poor 
enough material for any thing, too poor to waste good pow- 


der and ball upon ; utterly unworthy to fight in behalf 
of our glorious cause. Probably it was from a conscious- 
ness of this unworthiness that so many of them skedad- 
dled from our big field of battle at Sharpsburg. The vile, 
obscene, blasphemous swaggerers of our regiment, the 
thieves and drunkards and rowdies of the regiment gen- 
erally, to the number of seventy-five or a hundred, were 
found wanting in that fatal cornfield, and came sneaking 
back for days after the battle, with cock-and-bull stories 
of being forced into hospital service, and care of the 


Oct. 1, 1862. 
Who dare say that there is no Sabbath day to the sol- 
dier, no worship of God in the camp ? Let him come and 
see a reo;iment of eaojer men ojathered too:ether under the 
rays of a burning sun at noonday, after a week's hard 
marching and drilling, to hear the word of God preached, 
and join in prayer and praise ; standing up, too, through 
a service of nearly an hour. Tell him how generally the 
regiment came together to service in that splendid white-oak 
grove near Sharpsburg on the Sabbath after the battle. 
Show him the earnest groups that assemble for social pray- 
er two or three times a week at any chance resting-place, 
in any spare hour that can be so improved. Ay, soldiers' 
prayers are short, and often interrupted ; but the Lord has 
a place for them, an ear to listen to them, a strong right 


hand to work ia answering them. The Cbristian, God. 
fearing iQcii of oar regiment are a leaTen of good working 
in the whole lump, shirking no soldierly duty, and to ba 
depended upon in any emergency ; and many of our 
boys that have been called wild and reckless at home 
show that the asaooiationa of the holy Sabbath, and the 
influences of God's word, have a deep hold upon their 

It is latter-day at last ia our camp. The long, long 
delayed mail baa at last arrived from Washington, the 
first tidings for four weeks from the loved ones at home, 
— four long, crowded, eventful weeks. Oh! it would 
have done your tender and sympathizing heart good, my 
dear "Kepublican," to have stood before that long line of 
anxious, eager Boldiers /idling in to receive their letters; 
to have Been the eye light up. and the band stretch forth 
to grasp the missive of affection (very likely ill-apeUed, 
and directed in crooked lines, with no capital letters, down 
into one comer of the envelope), as the name wua culled 
off, and the company's "orderly" handed up the docu- 
ment. And it would have done you good, too, albeit 
somewhat to the dimming of your eyes, to have seen the^ 
delicacy of emotion manifested, the hushed i 
sympathy that passed down the ranks, as the i 
of the dead comrades was read, and the lovin_ 
with which those unread epistles were tied together, and 
laid carefully away, to be returned to the bereaval friends. 


Oh, it has been a most eventful day with us ! a whole 
month of life, as it were, compressed into one short afler- 
noon. I can't, however, expect to compress it, or veiy 
much of the interest of it, into one brief letter to you : so 
good-by ! 

HAVE all those threo-y ears' nioc end nine-monthB' 
men, who have volunteered, or be«ii drafted, or 
been bought witlj estravagant bounties, into the service 
of the United Statea, yet started off and left you doso- 
lateV If there are still a few left who may bo benefited 
by my advice, I wish to speak a word, eapeeiailj to the 
officers, in TOference to outfits and equipments. As old a 
campaigner aa your humble servant happens to be, though 
he has traveled over a good pai-t of the world with no 
otlier luggage than a small carpet-hug, is compelled with 
shame to acknowledge himself ia the present instance lo 
have acted as foolishly, in respect of baggage, aa the 
greenest young lieutenant who has just donned his bril- 
liant uniform with its Ehining buttons, and entangled his 
legs with the awkward sword. Your correspondent, hav- 
ing dropped the peaceful toga from off his shoulders, and 
fipning to arms in his country's dafenso, went into this 
military toggery and outfitting huainesa utterly regardless 
of expense, and filled up a tmnk, right up to the eighty 
pounds or Iwelve cubic foot allowed by Uncle Sum's army- 


regulations. That same costly trunk, stored with magnifi- 
cent apparel, wherein your humble correspondent expected 
to appear in due time before his regiment, like Solomon 
arrayed in all his glory when he came out at the head of 
the Jewish militia, came into his possession about one 
week after ho left the good old State of Connecticut, and 
remained within his reach precisely ^yq days ; at the ex- 
piration of which time, he received, with his regiment, 
orders to march without baggage or knapsacks ; and so shut 
down the cover, and buckled up the straps with a sigh of 
regret, and — has never seen it more from that day to this ; 
and, what is worse, has many doubts as to whether it ever 
will bless his eyes again. In case he should ever have it in 
his power once more (which will only be by his getting 
it expressed on from Washington at an exorbitant price, as 
private freight) , his first measure will be to drag out of 
its depths that same little despised carpet-bag before al- 
luded to, put in it a clean shirt, a Bible, and a tooth- 
brushy to take with him ; and his next measure, to send 
by express the three-feet-by-two evidence of his dotage 
back to Mrs. D. B. in dear old New England. For 
learn, you foolish generation of military novices ! that, 
when Uncle Sam says you are entitled to so much trans- 
portation, he means that you are welcome to it if you can 
get it ; that he will gladly forward the forty trunks, more 
or less, of the officers of a regiment, provided they can 
conveniently be carried in the three or five wagons allowed, 


togirthor wilh die company eliests, tlie stores of various 
kinds that matt go, &c. Moreover, tho wagouy are 
alwiiys many miles in tbe rear of a luaraiiing urmy, and, 
in case of danger from the enemy, do not come up often 
tor days, and even it may lie for weeks, together. What 
the soldier or tlie officer (except the field and Btafi' offi- 
cers, who, B8 thoy ride horses instead of having only them- 
selves to attend to, cannot he expected to carry much, 
and so Lave a trank in the wagon) — what tlio soldier or the 
line officer can carry on his own back, that he is reason- 
ably sure of (till soraehody steals it, or ho throws it away 
ID battle) ; and the less he relies on any other governmont 
transportation than hia own legs, the less likely to bo dis- 
appointed. Geli your things for use, my friends ! and 
not for show. Be not deluded Ijy the asseverations of 
military tailors and outfitters. Use year common sense, 
if you bttve any ; if not, take a tittle of mine, which, not 
iiaving been used by myself, remains for me now freely to 
offer unto others. Go into a harness-maker's, and have 
a good strong strap of homely leather made for you iuW a 
sword belt, instead of investing in the costly, varnished- 
without, and pasteboard- with in article that glisleos before 
your eyes in the ahopa, and other things in like manner. 
And as to quantity, get tho least possible. Trust to Provi- 
deoDo, reduce your wants to the smallest compass, and 
have great regard to tho weakness of your poor human 
Ibk. For, when their stiffening shall have been reduced 


by tho moderate diet of crackers and water to which you 
may come sooner than you think, your tottering knees 
will have their full burden in toting enough to keep your 
back warm and your stomach full. Take these remarks 
to heart, militaiy tyro ! for, though homely and perhaps 
a little dampening to your first military ardor, they are 
rich in truth and sense, and come from one who has ** been 
there," and who was and is glad to be there, and who, 
without much romance in his ideas of war, yet rejoices 
every day to be permitted to share in the hardships and 
the dangers of his country's defenders. 


BOLIVAB HiGHTS, Oct. 12, 1862. 

I have nothing to say. I am not going to say any 
thing. If the date of my letter speaks for itself, as hint- 
ing, for instance, that the tremendous army of McClellan is 
still lying in its tracks now for almost the full month after 
its victory at Sharpsburg, in the most precious part of the 
whole year for active military operations, and seems to be 
repeating its masterly inactivity of last year over again 
with tho utmost precision, — if, I say, my date itself be a 
tell-tale, blot it out, knock the types on which it is set up 
into pi : for we must have no fault-finding with our gene- 
rals or our government ; agitation must be suppressed, and 
incendiary opinions promptly choked down. The grand 
Army of the Potomac, I am happy to inform you, anxious 
* * Republican, ' ' is safe (and so are its enemies) . Endences 


I of a great contemplat«d onward moTement thicken before J 

our wondering and admiring eyes. For didn't Lhe great 
general himself, witli a fall president in his train, and 
many splendidly dressod officers, and a long mounted reti- 

Inne, — did they not actually appear before us a few days 
ago, and make a tour of tho wholo army, and bow very 
sagaciously to us, as we received them in line with " Pre- 
sent anna ! " as much as to say, " Look out, lioys, for a 
jolly march to Richmond, as Boon as the fall rains, which 
we are patiently waiting for, shall have placed the roads 
in their normal condition of two feet in depth ! " 

Lest, however, I should violate my opening promise, and 
say something which might betray still further the imminent 
plana of the impotuous general, and, published in your 
columns, bring you under Government censure as affording 
contraband information to the eoemy (who is fully three 
miles away from us, all around our western and southern 
line of encampment), I will pass away from tiie danger- 
ous theme at once, and turn to one of more personal in- 
terest to myself, and to yourself also, in speaking of the 
joy with which I hailed the appearance of a stray copy of 
the " Hepublican " the other day in our camp. The young 
man in whose hands I saw it (and whose name has since 
been handed in with strong recommendations for the nest 
Tacant corporalcy) takes it regularly ; so that I am now 
able to reflect with a spirit of comparative independence 
apon your iailuro to comply with my request, (hat you 


should foi*ward a copy of your weekly sheet to my address. 
Washington, D.C. Did you refuse that request, tender- 
hearted '* Republican," that I might not be pained with the 
knowledge that my lucubrations remained unpublished, 
and found an ignoble end in your waste-paper box? or 
do the D. B. letters create such an increase of subscribers, 
that there absolutely doesn't remain paper enough to 
print a spare copy on ? However this may be, I read that 
stray number through even to the guessing out of the 
mysterious ** c o p t f," &c., directions at the comers of 
the advertisements ; and it had so strong a scent of the old 
Connecticut Valley and home associations, that I have 
hardly had the heart to look in a ** Baltimore Clipper " 
or "Philadelphia Enquirer " since, though they are cried 
in our ears (at the low price of ten cents a copy, and 
sometimes a day old at that) from morning till night. The 
dear old Connecticut Valley ! When this terrible war is - 
over, with what joy shall I carry back whatever may bo 
left of me to the chosen spot ! Talk about the danger to 
our country from its citizens becoming enamored of mili- 
tary glories and in love with standing armies I I assure 
you that our soldiers will be the ones of all others to re- 
joice with joy unspeakable over the return of peace. 
War, certainly as conducted on the principles of the pres- 
ent one, proves its own best antidote. The man who has 
seen its horrid face fears it most. There is only one thing 
that is worse, and that is our country destroyed, our lib- 
erties lost, our precious institutions perished. 

SH ALIj I draw the curtain from before our kitclieii, and 
lot you into tlie secret of some of the domestic and 
culinary arrangements of tlia ofBcers of Company I ? The 
&ot is, that tlie man whom wo bavo dotwlcd to forage and 
conk for our mesa has been sick for a week ; and, not being 
able to provide a suilahle Bubstitnte for him, we havelioen 
reduced to the painful necessity of doing our own cooking 
and bunting up our own proviaiona. In other words, our 
masculine Bridget having caved in, we have iiccn obliged 
to take to the baating'ladle and toasting-forka ourEclves. 
As the first scone, then, behold your eon'eapondent, at 
haJf-past three this misty, drizzling morning, issuing forth 
from hia tent with a cluater of canteens slung over hia 
back, a deraijohn in one hand, and a huge coffee-pot in the 
other, on the laudable errand of procuring water for our 
small crowd, which he obtained by sliding, walking, and 
atumbUng down our steep bill, at an angle of ahont forfj- 
five degi'eea, over rclling stones and fiiUen trees, and 
among stumps, to a spring some three-fourtha of a mile 
distant ; whence he returned, after the apace of an hour, 


quite refreshed with his morning ramble. See next the 
captain himself, with overcoat on and eyes half open, at 
work, a little back of the line of tents, kindling up a fire 
under the smoldering edge of a big oak-log which con- 
stitutes the back of our fireplace, and afterwards burying 
sundry sweet potatoes in the ashes ; thereupon ceasing 
from his efforts, and retiring upon his dignity and sundry 
woolen blankets for another morning nap. The third actor 
upon our culinary stage is our other lieutenant, slender 
and graceful, who, rising a little later, and spending a little 
more time in his ablutions, is now to be seen preparing 
the tea, and taking tlie mackerel out of the mess-pan where 
it has been soaking over night ready for a broil over the 
coals (on two disabled ramrods), to constitute the relish 
for our morning meal. Meantime the first mentioned, 
having recovered from the fatigue of his water-detail, and 
leisurely completed his morning toilet, bathing arms and 
face in a whole pint of water poured out by an obliging 
corporal from a cup of that capacity (for wash-basins we 
have none) , proceeds to a neighboring tent to borrow a 
loaf of bread ; returns with half a loaf, which he haa 
found frequently in his recent experience to be a great 
deal better than no bread ; and the trio assembles, each 
man with his contribution, to partake of the frugal meal. 
Seated in Turkish style upon the straw-covered (ground) 
floor of our tent, and our smoking viands placed upon a 
low box between us, with a big newspaper for a table-cloth, 


wo make u vei-y heoi-ty and satisfiictory bi'eakfast. We 
Hbtb a paper of §alt, a bos of pepper (Lolea pricked 
through the t«p with a hajonet). a jar of pickles, a little 
tin can of butter, anotlier of sugar, and another of solidi- 
fied milk; tin itupa to drink our millc from, and one spoon 
to stir it withal. (We confidently expect a new supply 
to-morrow of tin spoons and knives and forks.) The 
delicioTiB potatoes quickly disappear, the buttered mack- 
erel leaves only his skeleton and fins behind him, the 
" half loaf" becomes " no bread." The first lieatenant 
reaches bis hand into our box to bring out two or three 
bunches of freab grapes left over fi'om our yesterday din- 
ner's dessert ; but, searching in vain, is evidently disposed 
to suspect the captain of having appropriated them in the 
night. Then comes t!io usual discnasion as to who shall 
wash the dishes; which ends in your correspondent's vol- 
unteering to perform the task, on condition that his brother 
lieutenant shall go down to the village and do the catering 
for the day. Bearing in mind the uncertainties of our 
market, he is instructed to procure for our dinner u chicken, 
or a bit of beef or ham, or a can of oysters ; lo carry a 
canteen, and bring us a quart of milk, if love or money, 
his brass or his good looks, can obtain it ; to bo sure and 
bring OB some more of "those grapes," or any other &uit 
he can find ; and not to think of seeing our faces again 
if he doesn't come with a bottle of vinegar, that we may 
use the noble cabbsge (hat we bought yesterday. Now, 


i-Eloyon think that it is trifting and foolish to 'writt;. nnd have 
f printecl in a paper, these little every-day matters ; to dovoto 
time and ink to these things, that are of no comparative 
iequence, tu the midst of tbo grand and solemn reali- 
ties of war with which we arc surrounded "i No : you do 
not. You can have ten descriptions of a battle, or plana 
of a campaign, sooner than one gUmpse at the little un- 
thought-of details of a soldier's life. It would make a 
moro interesting column in your paper just to Eet down 
s minute detail of one day's doings of one of our privates 
n camp here, to picture him Co you as he sleeps and wakes, 
prepares his meals and eats them, drills, mounts guard, 
i deans his equipments and clothes, writes his letters, does 
. his duties, and takes his ea^e, than to describe the grand 
course of a campaign, or give you the most vivid account 
a military parade or hattle-scene. The greater part of 
the soldier's life, as well as anybody's else life, is made 
of these little things. Accordingly, though it is 
' harder writing than the grand descriptions and the thun- 
der-and-Iightning battle-scenes, lam going into the common- 
place details a little. I am not proud, personally, of 
cooking my own dinner, or washing dishes ; hut I think 
your readers will like to hear what the soldiers of the 
people's grand army can do in case of an emergency, and 
that they will also share in our joy at having any thing 
to cook and eat. 

To obuigB the subject at the last moment a little, there 




this morning of our being attached to Bum- 
side's corps (and detached from Sumner's), and under 
marching orders. So there is no telling how eoon I niay 
have atirring news enough to wril* about, and have little 
leisure to speak of or engage in culinary processes. Well. 
I trust, in God's strength, that we shall take up our 
march, or enter into the smoke of battle, if it be his will, 
as cheerfully and cooHy as wo sit down to dinner. Tours 
in feast or &ay. 

P. S. — We surely espectod a fight two or three days 
ago. A few thousand of us were ordered to the front, 
expecting the whole amiy to follow ; hut having looked 
the eneuiy in the face, and had a sharp skirmish with 
artillery in the vicinity of Charlestown, and "the whole 
object of the movement having been Buccessfully accom- 
plished," to use the cant military phrase, we are all called 
back again to our old quarters, the enemy's pickets come 
up aa close as ever, and " all b quiet along the Potomac ' ' 
for another month, I foai. 



Wktehton Hotei^ I 

{8 miles below HAKPKB'a Kerbt) Md., Oot. IT. ( 

THIS is a fine, large hotel ; and we occupy one of the 
best rooms is it, the potior or draning-Toom, I think. 
It is the best ventilated hotel, I believe, that I ever was in, 
unless, perhaps, I except an Eastern caravansary in wtiioti 
I once spent a night, and which had no roof at all. This 
building has a roof (minus a good many Bhingjes), but not 
a whole window from collar to garret. The place has 
been turned fiom ils legitimalfl purposes, and occujned by 
the Government for headquarters of the quartermasters' 
department ; and, like every thing else used for Uncle 
Sam's service, is decidedly the worse for wear, — windows 
smashed, piazza and steps broken down, furniture entirely 
demolished and removed, walls defaced by charcoal in- 
scriptions, ceilings dropping in, and the whole establish- 
ment decidedly resembling one of the Hereulaneum and 
Pompeii houses that have been digged out from tho lava 
of Vesuvius. The way we happen to be here is this : Our 
regiment at Bolivar Hights received orders yesterday noon 


to come down to Harper's Ferry for twenty-four hours' 
guard-service. So we fell in, and eame down tl.j hill a 
miie or two to the Ferry ; waited there in the san an hour, 
and then wore told that it wasn't osactly there that we 
were wanted, hut ahoat a mile up the Shonundoah River 
to protect eummisaary stores and forage. So off we 
marched up the Shenandoah till we came to the end of 
the railroad track, and saw a vast pile of sonie t«a thousand 
boxes of hard-craokers, and two thousand barrels of beef 
and pork: whereupon we balled again in the sun, and waited 
another hour for orders. At the end of that time came 
the news that only two companies of the regiment were 
needed there, and the rest must go baek to Harper's Fer- 
ry, and perhaps over the Potomac to Sandy Hook. Ac- 
cordingly, wo counteraj arched, dropped off the last two 
oompauies of our long column, and traveled bach to the 
Ferry. There we learned that two more of our companies 
were needed ; but the rest were to be marched over to the 
Maryland side of the Potomac, and down to Knosville, 
three miles. So the remaining sis companies of ua came 
on through Sandy Hook, over bill and dale, to this place, 
arriving at aboat five o'clock. Waited here an hour, and 
then received orders to leave three of our coinpanioH hero 
on guard, and send back the other three to Sandy Hook, 
two miles and more, over the road that we had just 
marched in coming ; some of the boys so weak and feeble 
too, that they conld hardly stand : bat finally, as a 


shower was coming od, we all etaid here over night, and 
eent the other three companies back to Sand; Hook early 
this mnrniDg. Whether they remwn there, or are 8til! 
" marcliing on." like the soul of John Brown, I know 
not. I dou't mention this as a matter of any great con- 
eeiiuenco ; for the march wasn't a very long one, altogether, 
and it made no particular diiFerence when we arrived at 
our destination, m the whole way was lined with regimenta 
of soldiers,— enough to gnard all the property a hundred 
limes over, without any of our help. But I speak of it 
merely to give you an idea of (he way every thing is man- 
aged horojbonts I have SLjiLcly seen a inarch or move- 
ment of any kind executed in any clearer or more direct 
and definite style than that Nobody knows what ho U 
to do, or when he is to do it, or how. I have already told 
you of the vcKatious and needless delay in getting our 
mail to UB, Now our regiment is receiving every day 
dozens of hoses by express that have been on their way 
from four to six weeks, and whose contents have been 
nearly idl spoiled by the delay in transmission. And all 
the soldiers' knapsacks and officers' baggage that were 
left stored at Washington during our march through Mary- 
land remaiu tbei'c still, although it is neatly four full 
weeks that we have lain here at Harper's Ferry, sisty 
miles from Washington, with coramunicatiou two or three 
times a dfly each way by rail ; and we are all suffering for 
our indispensable articles of wearing apparol, and cbUged 


to replace them by new. Just these comparatively trivial 
personal matters, mismanaged, wouldn't ruin the country ; 
but this is only a fair spoeiraen, yea, only a fair specimen, 
of the general way in which every thing goes on, especially 
the great things of the war. Why, through the hard rain 
of last night, thousands, and I guess tens of thousauda, of 
bags of oata and com lay out here under our guard, by the 
side of tbe track, soaking through and through ! And bo 
all along the track for milea, boxes of baid-bread (which 
only needs to get a little wet to mould, and grow musty, 
and breed worms, and bo condemned), and every kind of 
provision and forage and baggage. Men, horses, and pro- 
perty of every kind, are all alike neglected, improvidently 
managed, scattered, and wasted, in this extravagant war. 



LYING here under the edge of a wheat-stack at four 
o'clock this misty morning, my head wet with the 
dews of the night, and feet cold with the chills of the damp 
straw that covers them, I was inclined to take gloomy 
views of things, and agree with Mrs. Partington as to the 
disagreeableness of ** sleeping on a picket " as compared 
with ** sleeping on a post,'* and hold the world as a dreary 
kind of a place to dwell in, especially the out-of-doors part 
of it, and to be low in spirits generally as to the war and 
the country, and the universal moral system of things, and 
more particularly as to my own prospects for a pleasant 
Sabbath. But when the glorious sun showed his cheer- 
ful face over the ridge of Loudon Hights, and the hosts 
of mist and fog and cloud could not abide the sight of his 
countenance, and the crests of the hills began first to appear, 
and then the tree-tops, the farm-houses, the orchards and 
groves ; as I now write, with the dew dried up, the earth 
(and my toes) warmed in the sunbeams, the delightful 
notes of the quail whistling up from the valley below us, 
and the whole bright, fresh, and bracing autumnal morn- 



ing throwing Its infloencos of cheer around me, — why, tbo 
o clear away before iny mental and spiritual 
TiMOn too ; my views of philoBOphy, moral's, and religion, 
partake of the brightness of the fair morning. The world, 
the country, ei^ tbis grim war, assume a softened aspect, 
and arrange themselvea in their harmonious place in God's 
grand pliiD of operationB. For better than the morning 
enn driving a,wBy the misfs have been ihe blessed words 
oF Holy Writ to my spirit, — the glorious psolm of David 
lo which I opened at random, whicli has for itn frequent 
refrain, " Oh that men would praise the Lord for his good- 
ness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men ! " 
And, again, the sweet wonla from Christ's own mouth that 
I found in reading my Sabbath-mom ing chapters in the 
Gospel, where we are assured that the sparrow fallcth not 
to the ground without our Father; that the very hairs of 
our head are numbered, Tos, God's word is the best 
recipe for promoting cheerfulness and patience, and en- 
abling a man to talio things as they come, believing they 
all come irom Him who doeth ail things well. Surely it is 
just the book for the soldier to get his daily comfort fi^om ; 
and I rejoice to see how many of our soldiers do make it 
their continual solaco. 

I think I closed my last letter to you with some foolish, 
commonplace remark about the waste of men, blood, and 
treasure of this war. Whatever it may havq been, I take 
tbat all back. That was said from a low, merely human 


point of view. In the sight of God, in whose great name, 
as I trust, we set up our banners in this war, not a drop 
of blood, not a sigh or a groan uttered, a hardship or a 
danger passed through, not one of all the sacrifices made 
bj an individual citizen, however hnnfl^ through the 
length and breadth of our vast country, has been wasted. 
The tired soldier has £cdlen out of the ranks and died by 
the wayside before he has had the opportunity of striking 
a blow for his country, but not in vain. The brave, en- 
thusiastic patriot has rushed to the defence of his country, 
without looking for position or counting the cost, and has 
sacrificed his life to the blunder of some incompetent offi- 
cer, or the corruption and treachery of some scoundrel ; 
but the eye of Grod has seen and accepted the sacrifice. 
The large-hearted wife or mother or sister has stifled 
her sighs as she bade adieu to the loved one, and bravely 
endured bis absence and the sad tidings of hi$ wounds and 
death, and man hath thought little of it outside of the 
circle of bereaved ones ; but God's eye hath taken it all 
in. There is no waste of patriotism or sacrifice in his 
great plan. The mismanagement of his human agents is 
all provided for : it is a part of the allowance for friction 
in the running of his machinery. There is no such thing 
or word as mistake with him. And so all this blun- 
dering, wasteful, extravagant war is an economical, weU- 
ordered part of his system, and shall promote the great 


general progrosa of yirlue and liberty in the world, a.nd 
the glory of his nwn groat name. 

Ibis is the way I muse to-day, spending my Sabbath 
on picket duty, stationed under tlio lee of a wheat-stack. 
We shall have, out here under the sky, a short servieo of 
worship and praise to God, though there be no other than 
myself to lead therein, with the sword girt on mj thigh, 
and the enemy's pickets in sight heforo us. God will 
help ns to keep his day holy, though wo aro clad in the 
panoply of war, and obliged to do many military duties. 
He will accept our praise, if we offer it in sincerity. He 
will feed us with his word, though we have it only in a 
few copieB. and can only snatch now and then a moment 
to peruse or listen (n it. He will listen to our prayers, 
though they bo brief and broken ; for ho ia our strength 
and our refuge, our strong fortress and our high tower. 
He is the God of the soldier and of the soldier's loved 
ones at home, the God of battles, the God of oar country 
and our lathers. We will have him for our God, and 
pray that ke may be the God of our children, and ovir 
regenerated, repurchased country, unto all future genera- 
dons. Thus much immediately in &ont of a hundred and 
fifty thousand rebels. 



WHO can tell what a day will bring forth? Last 
Sabbath noon, or a little after, as we had just 
finished our lunch, and were about sitting down, a few of 
us to get a lesson in God's word together, congratulat- 
ing ourselves that the Lord's Day did not find us on picket 
duty as one week ago, and that the cold, driving, pitiless 
rain did not fall upon us unsheltered, the sergeant-major 
came rushing in to our quarters with orders for Company 
I to strike tents, pack up every thing, and be ready to 
march in fifteen minutes to Harper's Ferry, and report 
to the provost-marshal for orders. Away goes our heavy 
baggage, in the shape of potatoes, onions, cabbages, and 
various kinds of provisions, to whomsoever would take 
them. The lighter articles are thrust into haversacks; 
blankets rolled up; overcoats, equipments, bundles, and 
various light portable goods, such as frying-pans, kettles, 
tin cups, &c. , are suspended about the person ; then stakes 
are pulled up ; tents taken down, rolled together, and put 
into a wagon to follow us ; and we take up our line of 
march amidst a pouring rain that changes the ground 



mider our feet into a slippery pndJing, and greatly hastona 
our locomotion down tte Bteep bights to the Ferry. Sprawl- 
ing, splashing, soaking, and dripping, we draw np in two 
lines (in a puddle about aix inches deep) hefore the pro- 
vost-marshal's quarters, and send in onr commanding offi- 
cer to report for orders. The provost-marghal, who ia a 
regular United-States officer, and, bo. much leas inclined 
to military delays and panctjlios than the volunteers, does 
not keep us waiting many miautca, takes pity on our for- 
lorn condition, and sends us round to quarters for the nigbt 
before ascending the steep Maryland Hights, which he tells 
08 are to be our new camping-ground. And tlioso same 
quarters for the night prove (o bo no other than the old 
engine-house which John Brown and his scveDtecii men 
defended aguinat the sovereign Stale of Virginia and the 
United-States Governmeat in the old time when he held 
Harper's Fen'y, and made much more of a fight before 
yielding it up than did mi^rable Miles with his cannon 
and twelve thousand men. A huge fire soon blazes on 
the brick floor of the chief apartment, of this meraorahlo 
building, and SLSty men proceed to make themselves as 
comfortable therein as circumstoneca will permit. Your 
oorrespondent, occupying for a seat an inverted flat-bot- 
tomed iron kettle, is conspicuous as the only sitting mem- 
ber of the circle ; and dries bis stockings with serene 
complacency, as not forgetting present duty even while 
rarroiinded by straiigo historical memories. The loop- 


holes tiirongh which Brown fired upon his ns?ailanta are 
all built up ; but the breaches ho made upon the institu- 
taon and tlie ideas of the Sooth have been widening ever 
since. This little, low, plain building remtuDS about the 
only one in decent condition in Harper's Feiry ; and it may 
be that the memory of the humble, obscure olil man, who 
was hung for treason, will remain the deepest and most in- 
delible of Harper 's-Ferry historical associations. I have 
at least the memory of one pretty comfortable night's rest 
on the brick floor of the old building, without any distorb- 
ance from the old man's ghost. 

Dried and refreshed by our night's rest, and the rain 
having ceased, we climbed with comparative ease the pre- 
cipitous Maryland Hights, and pitched our camp in a little 
open space amid the forest, with running water on either 
side ; the noble trees ehellering ua from the winds, the high 
mountain rising up for our protection on the east. Here 
our duty is, with three or four companies from other regi- 
ments, to guard, and keep at work, some hundreds of de- 
serters and stragglers from the Union armies, who have 
been picked up by the provost^guard, and assigned to labor 
here on fortifications, for punishment, -^ a sort of State's- 
prison business, which your correspondent for one doesn't 
like, while all is again movement and bustle arouqjl ua, 
indicating approaching business with the enemy. The 
whole army is again really on the advance ; and, late as it 
is, perhaps great things will yet be accomplished before 


the fall campiiiga close?. The roads are choked with 
wagons, and black with thronging men clad in the lirery 
of war. Trains of artillery, sq^uadrons of horae, ambu- 
lance corps, and all the constituents and acconipaniiiicnts 
of a tremendous array, are going forward in majestic move- 
ment ; and it may be that your correspondent, left be- 
hind in this sudden and most unexpected manner, will 
not be permitted to share in the stirring events before us. 
But what happens to the individual matters little so the 
great cause go forward, the noble people's will be ac- 
complished, and the grand blow be struck for our national 
preservation and unity, 
oinote it bol 



Out on '* Fatioub Duty/' a Mile from Gamp. 

BEHOLD your correspondent, at the head of sizty-siz 
men, out on a wood-chopping excursion of a few days, 
our swords not exactly turned into plow-shares, but our 
rifles transformed into the clumsiest axes that were ever 
put into human hands to wield, and the giants of the 
forest groaning with an almost human agony as their trunks 
are mangled with their cruel strokes. We are sweeping 
clean of its shade ani forest trees a most lovely little 
valley along up the Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad to the 
west ; letting the glaring sun into shady dells ; choking 
up the bed of a clear-running stream with the corpses of 
many a stately oak and sycamore and elm and hickory and 
maple, — noble fellows, four, five, and six feet in diameter; 
and leaving many a cottage and mill bare of its ornamental 
shade. It seems a villainous business, a sacrilege against 
Nature in her holiest mysteries. But our cannon are 
pointed in this direction, and whatever interferes with 
their sweep and destructive efficiency must go down at 
any cost. The trees must fall that men may the more 




readily fall if they sliould come to take their plaeea, 
Ktilesa War spares nothing ; carries devastation ami deso- 
lation to bousoa and fields, forests and niount^n-stdea, 
cities and great cotam tint ties. ConBtdering, in our business 
of to-day, how far tha range of our heavy batteries ex- 
tended, I thought, " Oh, what a tremendous, infinite rango 
all this aiTay of war-artillery possesses ! " Not one little 
valley like this, hut all the valleys through the length and 
breadth of our land ; cot these scattered houses in our 
eight, hut the homes of the nation, — have the dreadful 
guns bearing directly upon them. The cannon pointed from 
one of these hills may take clfect on the shores of the 
Penobscot or the Rio Grande. The musketry discharge 
in Virginia may fill graves in Connecticut and in Georgia, 
But I am not going to moratiae or sentimentalize. "Wo 
came out here to fight, and not to chop wood," was the 
disgusted remark of one of my boys as he held up to me 
hia blistered hands after a combat of about an hour aad a 
half with a huge sycamore by the brook-side, in which he 
had Bucocoded in encircling the old monarch's body with 
& girdle of barely perceptible scars, — "we came out 
here to fight, and not to chop wpod." And this sots mo 
off to thinking again, in spite of my resolution not to 
moralize. We don't object to chopping wood for once in 
a while as occasion may serve, or doing any other little 
extra work that Uncle Samuel may require ; hut we came 
here toji^ht. We expected and wanted to fight weeks 


ago. Wc liaven't been permitted to fight. Tho weather 
in which we can fight comfortahly is well-nigh past for 
the season ; a.nd tbo Eohliers are treated in such a way, 
that they are fust losing their disposttioa tu fight. Our 
brigade and others, so fiir as I can judge, are not, in any 
respect, in so good a fighting condition as they were throe 
or four weeks since. Nothing pains me iu3 much as to 
hear the exprossiona of the men on .every side, of dis- 
couragement and coinpliunt, of regret for having enlisted, 
and wishes that they were home a^in, and cnrsea on the 
Qovernnient and on tho generals, and all that, ad inJinC- 
tarn. The few who came from a. mere sense of patriotic, 
Christian duty stand their ground, and bear every thing 
without much murmuring ; and doubtless half tbo grum- 
blers don't mean all tbat they say, and would come up 
to the mark in a battle manfully. But I should do in- 
justice to my honest belief if I said otherwise than that 
tho spirit of the army is going down and backward every 
day. The men feel that they are treated like dogs, and 
are out of patienoo with it. And there is too much 
grouad for it, as I say to you, and wish I could say to 
the governors of all the States, and to tho President of 
the United States. Their wants are not attended to, their 
feelings are not regarded. They are neglected when tbey 
are sick, and are led to die, with little care or sympathy 
manifested in their behalf. I tell you again, as I have 
told you before, the knapsacks of the men and the bap 


gage of the ofBcera of this and a,t least one other adjoin- 
ing regiment stiil lie in a storehouse at Washington, sixty 
miles from here, wiLli railway tmina running tbieu or lour 
timos each way every day, now to-morrow five weeks 
since wo came to Harper's Ferry; and all the remon- 
strances we have sent in, all the messeogors we havo dis- 
patched, and orders and telegrams with which wo have 
burdened the wires, have failed to obtain that which was 
indispensable to oar comfort. Men have died. — not one, 
but many, to my knowledge, — from no other apparent 
cause than tlie exposure of sleeping, night afler night and 
week after week, on the ground, without overcoat or blan- 
ket, and sometimes without any kind of tent shelter, these 
cold October nights, on these bare, exposed higlita. And 
jet, when we have sent in to our division or corps eom- 
mander for permission to one of our officers to go to 
Washington to get these things, the permission has 
been constantly refused ; and when we have written or 
telegraphed for thorn, or sent special (citizen) messengers 
to bring them, the answer has been returned, that they 
would only he given up to one of our commissioned offi- 
cers. So have we boon beaten about from pillar to post 
for weeks and weeks, and our sufferiags contemptuously 
disregarded, and our lives needlessly imperiled. In the 
smaller matter of our mail conveniences, the same disre- 
gard is shown to the soldier's comfort. Irregularity and 
irritating delay are the rule, order the ezcepUon. A fall 





ik has DOW pnssed nway aince we bave received uiy 
mftU from Waaiiington (where all our letters are directed) ; 

to-morrow is the Sabbath, with no mail, the niutli 
d&j at least mast come, and that with no more than the 
i^pe of relief to ub. Yet there is a, mail tndn and a 
.nail agent running over the route every day. 

hospital amiDgementa are very little bettor, — little 
[fooms, and orowdcd with the putienta; scarcely any pleas- 
delicacies such as the eicIc receive at home ; physicians 
who are tired and over-crowded with cares till their man- 
ner is harsh and stern, and their pills and potions become 
douhly bitter to the poor fellows who reeelve them. And 
when death comes, as it does, oh, how frequontly ! then a 
brief funeral service, a rough coffin, a shallow grave, and 
a wooden headboard, for the worn-out soldier of the Union, 
laid down to his last rest, — a true hero, perhaps, who has 
come forth, with the exalted motives of a Hampden or a 
Washington, to lay his life a sacrifice on the altar of his 
country ; a true Christian, perhaps, in whose behalf the 
Judge shall say on the great, final day, lo many now high 
civil or military position, "Inasmuch as je did it not 
;to one of the least of these, ye did it not unto me." I 
Bpeak seriously, because I speak from the side of freshly 
opened graves, and death niakes us sober and thoughtful, 
but I speak inside the truth, when I say that the needless 
.^vations and hardships and losses of this war are greater 
:9ud more numerous than the neceasary ones. And now, 


if tre most expect a contmnanoe of the same incompetency, 
waste, beedlosa cmelty, and general mismanagement, which 
haTB characterized the conduct of this war hitherto, may 
we not, at least, hring a strong preaaure upon those that 
guide our afiaira, througli the voice of an outraged people 
who have furnished men and treasure enough to have 
crushed this Hebellion a dozen times over, to hurry up the 
final struggle, and let our soldiers die, if need be, in manful 
battle with their eneroies, and not in the continued hard- 
ehips aud exposures of such a life of inaction as ours ? If 
we cannot vonc|uer, in Ileaven's name let us find it out, 
and make peace, and go home ; and, if we can conquer, 
let us do it, before, in a general bankruptcy and wreck of 
things, victory and defeat become of equal value to usl 

" Come, boys r that last sycamore clears the valley. 
Fall in, 14th! Shoulder — arraa ! Forward toward Boli- 
var BGghts ! Quick — march I " 

Near Warrektos, Va., Nov. 10, 18S1. 

GENERAL McCLELLAN has resigned, nnd Burn- 
side has taken bis place ! This may be old newa 
to jou, or old loDg before it geta to yon ; but it is quite 
fresb to as : and tbc sight of the big body of troops 
drawn up to exchange farewell greetings with their long- 
(iine commander, and the booming of the cannon, and 
the shouts of the troopa as he passes, and the niartial 
music that iills tho air, come with quite a startling efieot 
npon us aa wa enter camp, from our early moruing march, 
to rest, and breakfast in this beautiful grove, whilo our 
captain goes to report us at headqaarters, and find out 
where our regiment lies ; for our company has been 
marching these last four days from Harper's Ferry out 
into the bowels of the land to join our regiment. Our 
road has seemed any thing but the track of an advancing 
army. No troops moving forward or backward, no sup- 
ply-trains or Bjnhulancca or baggago-wagona to obstruct 
our passage, but tho whole way to ourselves, all indicat- 
ing that the array geta its supplies over some other roato 

OJf THE MARCa. 91 

It haa been a beaadful countiy over wbich we have 
passed, and doesn't show very many traces of tho dcso- 
lations of war either. The huge stacks of wheat, the 
full bams, the cattle, sheep, and hogs, that everywhere 
abound, do not look much like ruin; and from some 
oiperiencQ in the prices demanded for all raanner of 
produce hy the inhabitants, as well as the sight of big 
bundles of Uncle Sara's money in their possossion, I have 
toy suspicions that the passage of the army has been of 
moj'e profit than damage to the people of this part of Vir- 
^nia at least. Our march hither has been nearly with- 
out incident save the common ones of blistered feet, 
grumbling at the shortness of rations and the length of 
marches, some little ludicrous occurrences at our bivou- 
acs, and tho very uncommon personal iucident to myself 
of spending one night in a civilized raanner, actually 
sleeping on a feather-bed (for the first time of sleeping 
on a bed, and taking off my clothes for it, since leaving 
New England), and sitting down to a table at supper and 
breakfiist like " white folks." Blessings on the head of 
that amiable Quaker (his name is Beans) who extended 
bis hospitality to us-ward ! and blessings on tho head of 
the pretty Beans girl who brought us the smoking muf- 
fins and honey and cofiee and chickens for our meals with 
her own fair hands ! 

An incident occurred to us, however, before we left 
Maiylaod Highta, which was of veiy great moment in- 


Joed to those who were immedlstelj concerned. The 
baggage and knapaacka of the 14th Regiment ar- 
rived at tho Ferry from Washington on Sunday, just 
eight weeks from the time we lost sight of them at Port 
Ethan Allen, oppoaito Washington. And, after nearly six 
wceka of lying within sixty miles of them at Harper's 
Ferry, those necessariea actually came by rail ; and wben 
wo looked tliereon we rejoiced, though wo could scareely 
believe the evidence of our senaes aa to their presence. 
The mon, having no other transportation, carried them, 
beavy trunks and all, two miles np the steep Maryland 
Highta, on their own hacks, to our camp, coming in at 
about ton, a.m. Was it a. desecration of the Sabbath '! 
Verily it looked t-o me, and so I instructed tho men, that 
it was a work of necessity and mercy, always provided it 
was followed by a work of ablution and pergonal cleanli- 
ness. For my own part, I made, as I think, a really 
reli^oua and devout use of the nest two hours of that 
Sabbath in thoroughly putting off my whole old, dirty, 
outward man, and renovating myself entirely from head 
to foot ; so that I seemed to myself, and presume appeared 
also to my friends, a totally new person. Then we all 
gathered together, at a little after noon, under the shade 
of an old oak, with clean clothes and grateful hearts, for 
divine service. I think tho work of the morning aided, 
not hindered, tho praises and prayers of the aftemoou. 
And now I will finish up this baggage topic. The day we 


(one company) received ours, the regiment moved from 
Bolivar Highte, right through the Fcn7. past their bag- 
gagtf, on to the front. The nest day, wagons look the 
knapsacks on hoard, earned them forward to the bivouac 
for the night, reaching it a few minutes after the regiment 
had started again in the morning, and left them on the 
ground. They were finally packed away in an old empty 
house without any guard, and destroyed hy stragglers. 
Fitting consummation of the whole transaction I The 
14th will have no more trouble about its knapsacks. 
The officers' trunks may be still an enomnbrance to their 
owners. I saw them last in a big heap, out in the open 
air, where they had been lying two days, and may be now. 

The style of architecture here consists of a great many 
yariatjons on the common basis of the log. such as the log- 
house simple, the log-house chinked, the log-house chinked 
and plastered, and even the log-house stuccoed, and paint- 
ed in imitation of stone ; then the Ing-house without win- 
dows, the log-house with holes cut for windows, the log- 
house with framed and glazed windows, and so ou. 

Ah for movements, we are espocling, any moment, or- 
ders to march, orders to go into battle, orders for any 
thing else whatever. Things seem to be reaching a criaa 
of some sort. Whatever it is, having now rejoined my 
n the front," I shall be in for it. 



ty is 

Boems that the newlj-resurreotcd Demooratio'pM- 

fashioned victories, and noboJj remaiaa &ithful but the 
good old States of Vermont and Massaohusetta, that are 
absolutely iimnovahlc, lika the everlasting hilla. Well, 
the philosoplier who can't account for all existing facia, 
no matter how stubborn or unexpected, and rePoncilB 
them with his theory and principles, isn't At, for instance, 
to edit " The Republican," or to be a line officer in the 
army (he mighP answer for a brigadier-general perhaps, 
or to edit soiae of those second-rate papers that they pub- 
lish in New-'York City). I haven't read your esplans- 
tion of the phenomenon alluded lo above ; but I douBt 
not it ig the same with mine, which is this : The victory 
of the Democratic party doesn't mean that the North .is 

sed to the war, ^r sympathizes with the Rebellion. 

it does moan that the nation is disgusted with the 
^mode in which the war haa been carried on ; with the 
corruption and mismanagement, the utter shiftleseness 



and iinbecility, of those nba have had it ia cbarge ; the 

waste of its resources of inen and monej, poured 

L a free deTOtion unparalleled in the history of 

:ld. It does mean that the country at largo is not 

rather has at last come to the estreniity of its 

ll Ejdst wonderful patience, under the repeated demands 

b made upon its treasured of life and wealth so coolly by 

a military admiolstradon that has promised, but not per- 

fppmed; that has played with the wrathful thunderbolts 

V of a nation's righteous vongeaneo, yes, sold them for old 

I iron, to put pence in thoir lOwn raiserable indiyidual 
i 'pockets. The nation has been in earnest, while those 

II leaders have made trifling boras' play of the momentous 
|)iV men'e work before them ; and this Is the nation's rebuke 

io tbem. The people do not blame the Government and 

the generals for carrying on tho war, hut for not carrying 

' it on. They don't wish tho war to cc^ by eompromis- 

Iing with the rebels, but by speedily crushing them. It 
baa the means now in the field for bringing about thiB 
It jesolt, in Bpife of all the previous waste ; and let any 
administration use wisely and energetically the means to' 
that end, no matter how many def^ta it may have sus- 
tained at the polls, it will triumplt'in the hearts of the 
people, and be sustained oven by te enemies. 

Bttt I will go no farther on this point. If this tremen- 
dous rain now deluging us does not prevent the advance 
of our army, we mean to be in Richmond jet speedily. 

ur.vjr BRowxx is the armt. 

But God is over «D. The beallb sod spirits of the arm; 
are better, oow that we are in motion ; and we hope fo; a. 
ing series of crashing victories to finid oat our &II cSid- 


Wridog my last to jon, I was in the midst of some 
wise (or otherwise) political obsermtions, and was brought 

Dp rather suddenly by the order, drealated through oar , 
camp, l« strike tents at once, pack knapsacks, and be 
ready (o march at a momeot's notice. The little ink- 
horn is screwed up straightway ; your letter sealed, and 
dropped into the regimental mail-bog, for which the boy 
on horseback happened to be that moment waiting ; and, 
in about fifteen minutes' time, onr whole brigade was in 
line, with weapons, clothing, provisions, houses, and all a 
soldier's impedimenta, npon their backs, and the leading 
colomns beginning to file off npou their Une of march. 
We supposed we might be going over the river into Fred- 
ericksburg, as we knew our batteries through the day had 
been shelling those of the enemy that defended the cross- 
ing; and we somewhaf espxted a fight loo, not knowing 
how we might bo received on the other aide ; but when 
we reached Falmouth, the little village opposite the city, 
Gen. French, our division commander, halted, and ad- 
dressed us, saying that our brigade had been detached 

TRAVEL AND T!}Ai .il/,. 


from Ilia command, much to his own regret, and were 
about to march right away from the eaemy, back to Belle 
FUn, near Aquia Creek, to protect the landiog of elorea 
for the grand army on ita march towards Richmond, So, 
' wi^ BOmo L'unipliinentary words, he bade H3 adieu ; and 
we took up OQT mai-uh for Belle Plain, or supposed we 
L were doing ao. It was already dark ; and we marohed on 
, slowly till towarda nine o'clock, and pitched our camp 
for the night.. We started, he times the next moroiog, for 
' it looked like rain, and marched on, and up this bill and 
down that ooe, and wondered if wc were almost there, 
(for it ia only a march of seven or eight miles) ; and the 
u rain did come, and the mud gathered, and the roada t)e- 
P came by-roads and cross-roads, and finally went out alto- 
ri getber ; and our brigade, with ita long train of wagons, 
' cnue to a dead halt, and conntermarctied, and tried new 
I oonrseH, and tauglcd itsolf up m completfily, that at two, 
P.M., we were probably nearer Prederieksburg than when 
we encamped the night before. But after inquiring the way 
at varioua log-bouses, and crossing and recroasing u stream 
two or three times to the wetling of all our feet, wo got 
into the true road along towa^l^ night; and, by huuiling 
the wagona by men's ahouldcrs up all the hills (on ac- 
count of the tired horses refusing io draw them) , we man- 
aged at last, an hour after dark, to drag through to our 
destination, and laid our tired bodies down on the muddy 
ground, putting up some tents, and getting what shelter 


we coul I. Wo found one or two other regiments, that 
had staitcd the morning after we did from the same place, 
arrived two hours before us, and with their fires bmlt, 
and tents well put up, quite snugly prepared for the 
night. Some evil-disposed, fault-finding persons attrib- 
uted our long and toilsome march to bad guidance and 
mismanagement; but I account for it entirely on the 
ground of the reluctance of our brigade to march away 
fix)m the enemy. You see, it took twenty-four hours and 
upwards to get us less than ten miles on the back track. 
Wouldn't we be a first-rate brigade to cover a retreat ? 

That same was the worst night we have yet been called 
to experience. The men have only ** shelter tents," so 
called ; that is, two little pieces of sheeting about six feet 
square, to button together and pin to the ground over a 
horizontal stick about two feet high, to protect them fi^om 
the weather ; and the mud and water, even in the larger, 
oflGicers' tents, varied from an inch to three or four inches 
deep. There was little sleeping in our camp, and a great 
deal of coughing, sad to hear ; and, I am sorry to add, a 
still greater amount of cursing. And two days more have 
not been much better as to weather, — a drizzling rain 
persisting in its disagreeable attentions. Our colonel 
sends off his teams to bring us wood (and I fear, front 
the character of some of it, that the country for some 
miles arouLd will need to be newly fenced), and we 
make ourselves as comfortable as may be ; and men can 


get nsed to alraost any thing. We don't take cold now 
at yrhai would havD nearly killed us eix mnntha ago. Tbe 
weather is clearing up to-day, and, I truat, may be auch 
for a month to come as to favor the great march to Rich- 
mond. Let ati hope that the gallant Burnside may make 
a Bucceasfal accomplishment of the oftrdefeated Tindertak- 
ing. We greatly fear that oar detention here may keep 
na from sharing the hardships and perils and glories 
of tbe remainder of the eamptugn. But the Aquia- 
Creek and Frederickabnrg Railroad will, in a few days, be 
open, we hear, and our depot hero, in coaseijuence, he 
hrokea up. So we may yet be in time, 

Having obtained a turkey to-<Iay, we are going to make 
sure of a Thanksgiving dinner any way, if it does come a 
few days too soon. 

Here's wishing you personally, " Dear Republican," a 
happy Thanksgiving, and the same to all the dear ones at 
home ; and to our country a joyful thanksgiving over suo- 
cesBes gained, and a wicked rebellioii broken. 



I WISHED you a happy Thanksgiving in my last epis- 
tle, and doubt not you, with equal heartiness, wished 
us the same here. I am going to tell you how happy a 
Thanksgiving we did have in that part of old Connecticut 
comprised within the limits of the camp of the 14th. 
We held with great reason that Gov. Buckingham's 
proclamation extended so far into Virginia at least as this ; 
and rejoiced in thinking, with the good governor, that we 
have still some things to be thankM for ; and attempted 
to observe his recommendation to the best of our ability 
under existing circumstances. The line officers, in gen- 
eral assembly convened on Wednesday eve, resolved with 
great enthusiasm to add tent to tent to obtain a suffi- 
ciently spacious dining-room, to purchase three pounds of 
candles (regardless of expense), to light it up, to borrow 
a score or two of cracker-boxes of the commissary depart- 
ment to pile up for tables, and, inviting in the field and 
staflf, to close up the exercises of the day with a dinner 
and social entertainment on a scale of magnificence not to 
be surpassed (it being stipulated in the postscript to each 



invitation that every guest should bring his own linifo, 
fotfc, cup, spoon, and plale with him). A committee of 
four captains was appointed to procure the needful sup- 
plies offish, flesh, and fowl. And as there has heen no- 
thing in the ebape of money in the old 14th for some weeks, 
save a few apecimens of secesh ahinplaaters, they were 
instructed to '' run their face " at the commissary's for a 
large amount of coffee, salt, soap, &c., to barter away 
with the inhabilanta of the sorronndiug country, on the 
same principle upon which trade is carried on with other 
barbarous tribes. Armed and eijuippcd in this engaging 
s^le, and attended by a guard of Ikitbful men to sec that 
they came to no detriment, onr valorous comiiiHndera were 
to sally forth at early dawn, take shipping, and proceed to 
the other aide of the Potomac Creek (on which our camp 
lies) on a voyage of discovery, or, to apply in slightly 
varied circumstances the Scripture phrase, to "go up 
and down, soeking what roe might devour." 

Having thus satisfactorily arrunged this indispensable 
matter, we proceeded, arising betimes the nest morning, 
to carry out the other needful preparations. Evergreens 
were brought to adorn the (ents withal ; a beautiful arch 
was erected in front of the colonel's tent, with the flags 
crossed in the background ; the tenia were put together, 
according to the programme, for our dining-hall; the tables 
were arranged and adorned ; crackers had boles whittled 
in them for candlesticks ; uud other ingenious devices trora 


resorted to to supply every possible requirement of the 
occasion. The music was selected and rehearsed: our 
fine regimental band furbished up their instruments, and 
prepared to discourse to us in sweetest harmonies; the old 
big drum bottled up his heaviest thunders; the bugles 
lubricated their silver throats in readiness to pour forth 
their wild, enchanting strains ; and the solemn trombones 
lengthened, if possible, their tremendous gullets, and 
strained wider open, if possible, their gaping mouths. The 
speakers (for who ever heard of an American celebration 
or assembly or occasion of any kind without an abundance 
of speech-making ?) turned over in their minds what they 
should say ; and so went on harmoniously and busily and 
pleasantly the whole array of varied preparation, physical, 
mental, and spiritual. Our thoughts reverted to the far- 
off* home scenes : our wishes, desires, affections, prayers, 
were hovering over the New-England firesides left behind. 
The only interest we could get up in our rude prepara- 
tions arose from their association with the keeping of the 
day at home. Deceiving ourselves as pleasantly as might 
be, then, in our mock preparations, the forenoon passed 
away : one, two, three o'clock, came; and we looked anx- 
iously for the return of our supply committee, who had 
promised to be back by ten or eleven, a.m., at the latest. 
The hour for the public exercises arrived, and they were 
postponed; for we wished their participation. One or two 
of the expected speakers, indeed, were of their number. 


As the day waned, we began to fear lest they Lad been 
captured by Bome prowling band of rebels; lest, seeking 
a mouthful for us, they had become themBolyes b mouthful 
for a squad of Slump's cavalry. 

Finally, the services could no longer be postpooeJ ; and, 
as the brightness of the beautiful day began to decline, 
the companies filed in, under the conduct of their order- 
lies, to the open space in front of our colonel's tent; and 
onr public exercises of prayer and praise and patriotism 
took place. Wo thanked the Lord, I trust with some 
true devotion and sincerity, for the privilege we have en- 
joyed of laying our individual sacrifices upon the altar of 
our country ; of passing through privations, hardships, and 
perils in her defense. We praised him for his goodness 
to oniselves and our families. We prayed him to bless 
and keep us and ours through the weeks to come, and to 
carry oar cause triumphantly through this present crisis 
of our destiny. We encouraged each other's hearts in 
the speeches of our surgeon, our chaplain, and others. 
We had a right good and pleasant hour of it, with oar 
sweet music, and our friendly talk, and thoughts of home 
and friends, our (Lieut.) Col. Perkins presiding; and 
then separated, to got what sort of a Thanksgiving din- 
ner wo might, mostly, alas I of the inevitable " hard-tock 
and salt junk," washed down with bean-coffee. Our 
officers' banquet was a garlanded hall and empty tables. 
We, of CDiirae, voted to extend Thanksgiving over until 


Friday night, and sought informBtion of our estrnyed offi- 
cers. Beceired tidings, just at night, of their being 
nground, in a big barge, on the other fide of the inlet. 
Couldn't Bend them any help that night ; and eo went to 
bed rejoicing that they were not captured, and resolved 
to hare a good laugh at and with the poor fellows, whea- 
Bver they did come, over their Thanksgifing spent in cold 
and wet, making fruntie efforts to push a heavy old barge 
off fl Band-bar. 

And a good laugh we did have, and a not bad dinner 
into the bargam, by waiting a day for it. Our committee 
brought us in a fair supply of poultry, and four good- 
Mzed quarters of beef, — enough fur oui'selvea, and to pre- 
sent a soup lo a good part of the regiment. And such 
roasting, boiling, stufBng, baking, and slflwing, under diffi- 
cult circumstances, with few condimente, spices, and sauces 
to do with, and scarcely any pans and dishes to do in, per- 
haps you may have seen in your varied experience, " Re- 
publican;" but I never did before. However, Yankee 
ingenuity, and a sutler's big tin oven that we took almost 
forcible possession of, carried us trjumphantlj through. 
Our banquet was a success. Turkeys, chickens, partridges, 
and roast beef, disappeared like ghosts at break of day, 
even thougb we had do bread save hard crackers, and no 
spices of any kind (not even pepper, save Cayenne), nor 
sauces and catsups for relish. The songs and speeches 
needed no spices to make them relish. No smaU amount 



of fiin was produced by the recital of tho Bufferings, ad- 
ventures, achieTements, and perils of tlie oamniittec in their 
sea and land excuraon. Stories were told, our regimental 
afiairs talked over, war proBpeeta discussod, homo friends 
remembered, wives and sweetbearts toasted, &c., tOI 
Friday bad changed infffl Saturday, when wo separated, 
very well satisfied with our two-days' Tlianksgiving cele- 
bration, and relieved in conBcienee a.s to any failure of 
oompliance with the recommendation of our worthy gov- 

And now, having given you thifl long narrative, you 
will not expect me to enter upon any other topic. We 
are all wondering here, as you are there, donhtleBs, what 
can be the meaning of this sudden and long stoppage of 
the great movement upon the enemy at this critical, lost 
moment, as it were, of the year too. A whole fell oam- 
pugn with a million of men wasted, as it looks now I If 
I ever go out to another war without going as oommander- 
in-ohief with unlimited powers, then my name is not Dunn 




Fbbdebioksbubo, Deo. 16. 

OH ! my heart is sick and sad. Blood and wounds 
and death Bre before my eyes ; of those who are 
my friends, comrades, brothers; of those who have 
marched into the very mouth of destruction as coolly and 
cheerfully as to any ordinary duty. Another tremendous, 
terrible, murderous butchery of brave men has made Satr 
urday, the 13th of December, a memorable day in .the 
annals of this war. On Friday, Fredericksburg was taken 
with comparatively little trouble and loss. On Saturday, 
the grand army corps of Sumner marched up against the 
bights back of the city, where the enemy lay behind 
strong fortifications all bristling with cannon and pro- 
tected by rifle-pits ; while our troops must cross a wide 
space of clear, open ground, and then a canal, whose 
every crossing was swept by artillery so perfectly trained 
beforehand, that every discharge mowed down whole ranks 
of men. Into this grand semicircle of death, our divisions 
marched with rapid and unflinching step. French's division 
(to which we belong) behaved splendidly, and the others 



no less BO, if «e may judge by tbs losses. Of whole 
companies and regiments, not a mao flinched. Tbo grape 
and canister tore through their ranks ; the fearfal voUeya 
of musketry from invisible foea decimated thoir numbers 
every few momenta. The conflict was hopeless. They 
could inStet scarcely any diimage upon the foe ; our artil- 
lery couldn't cover them, for they would do more damage 
tofinend than to enemy : yet our gallant fellows pressed on, 
determined to scale those breastworks, and take the posi- 
tion of the rebels. But there were none left tc do that 
work. A little handful of a great division approached, 
and even, in a few iastaoces, began to climb the works, but 
only lo leave their mangled bodies on the bloody field. 
A few torn and blackened remnants of those fine regi- 
ments sternly retired (o the eitj. The wounded were 
mainly brought off, tliough hundreds wero killed in the 
benevolent task. The city is filled with the pieces of 
brave men who went whole into the conflict. Every base- 
meat and floor is covered with pools of blood. Limbs, in 
many houses, lie in heaps; and surgeons are exhausted 
with their tryiug labors. 

But I will not sicken you with a recital of the horrors 
before us. Why our noble fellows were pushed on into 
such a hopeless and desperate undertaking, I am not mili- 
tary man enough to say ; or whj the graud division of 
Hooker were marching and countermarching all tlirough 
the day on the other side of the river, and didn't cross 


over, till just at nigbt, to help in the bloody business, if 
it Jiust be undertaken, I do not know either. Indeed, I 
don't know any thing hardly, save that I am sick of such 
a destruction of noble human lives, necessary or unneces- 
sary, useful or useless. 

The sight of the poor remnants of my regiment, — one 
hundred men only reported for duty, — and of my brigade, 
— not enough to make half a regiment, — has given a sad 
tinge to what I ever wish to write cheerfully. For God 
is over all ; and even this thing is right, and shall come 
out in a result of good some time. Gk)d grant we may 
see it ! 

Dec. 17. — Night before last, quietly, and without dis- 
turbance from the enemy, we evacuated Fredericksburg, 
and marched back to our respective old camps on this side 
the Kappahannock. In the darkness, and through the 
deep mud, the tired soldiers plodded wearily on their way, 
and then, on their arrival, were obliged to lie down on the 
ground, and make the best of a rainy winter's night, be- 
fore they could proceed to arrange themselves any com- 
fortable quarters. Let us hope that the shattered divisions 
that bore the brunt of the fatal fight behind Fredericks- 
burg may be left to a little rest before meeting any more 
of the horrors of a winter's campaign in this terrible coun- 
try. Oh for a month of that beautiful weather that we 
wasted in the autumn ! We hear rumors of the capture 
of Fort Darling and of Bichmond, but do not credit them. 


If it only could be so, and that our desperate attack at 
Fredericksburg could have the excuse of being a part of 
the preconcerted plan to occupy the attention of the enemy, 
and keep his forces here, it would much relieve many sore 
and discouraged hearts. 

We brought off all our wounded from the city, and have 
left little that is valuable on the other side, save our un* 
buried heroes on the field of battle. The pontoon-bridges, 
too, are saved, and ready to throw across again ; and our 
heavy artillery command the passage of the river at any 
time, I suppose. 



Gamp neab Falmoitth, Jan. 17. 

YOU and the other papers keep in the standing adve^ 
tisement, that '' All is quiet along the BAppaban- 
nock ; *' and we intend you to keep it in " till forbid." 
But, for all that, we are going to do something pretty soon. 
We have hushed up some little quarrels among our gen- 
erals and cabinet-ministers at Washington; formed our 
plans again ; let the enemy know what they are (though, 
for military reasons, we haven't promulgated them North 
yet); and, just as soon as they have finished their prepara- 
tions to meet us, we are going to pitch in. If, however, 
Davis and his compeers are really going to execute the 
threats of his rectent proclamation, as touching the hanging 
of Butler and Union officers, and the like, and carry on 
the war henceforth in the ungentlemanly and discourteous 
style there shadowed forth, we shall be forced, much 
against our inclinations, to change our tactics also. We 
positively won't let Lee know a single thing we are going 
to do ; no, not one week beforehand. We will attack him 

in some unexpected way. We won't put a single supply- 




tram in hia way to cut off, nor furnish him willi any 
more of OUT big guns and ammunitioQ. Wo wil! go iato 
tiiin, in short, utterly rogardloss of his feeling^; and, 
when we have whipped him once, we wout't stop, as we 
did at Antietam, for him to get np and brush the dirt off 
hia clothes, and get ready for another round ; hut we'll 
hit him when he is dowa, and gu in and finish him. 

This is & timi! that is trying the spirit of the nation ; a 
time of disajipoiutnient, discourHgement, and reverses on 
all hands. Checked hero, at the great centre of operations; 
checked in our grand sweep down the Missi^ppi ; taken 
again in the rear in Misaonri ; surprised in Texas ; onr navy 
insulted by one Ijold piratical craft that defies our five 
hundred vessels ; our little monitor lost, and none of our 
other iron-clads accomplishing any thing, — our prospects 

r lookc 


r began. The 

countiy is indignant, grieved, disappointed, at the waste 
of its resources, and the general mismanagement of the 
contest ; and is almost desperate as to the prospect of ever 
getting its armies properly eared for in the camp, or 
used in the field. And now, in such circumstances, 
the question is. Shall we lie down in despair, and give up 
the cause for which we took up arms ? or shall our spirit 
rise with iho dangiT, and meet the diacouragements, and 
oonc[uer all the obstacles that we have met ? How can there 
be hut one answer (c ibis r^uestion in the hearts of n nation 
that has called itself the foremost nation on the globe? 


How dnre we think of but one answer, after all our boast- 
inga anil proolaniationa at the beginning of the contest? 
We are discouraged, woariod, indignant, disgusted : we 
have found war no Imys' play, no easy game of glory and 
rewatilB, hut a serious, terrible, heai*t-hreaJiing, soul-siek- 
ening reality. But we are not yet iallen bo low as to 
prefer a disiionorable peace. Geil forbid I should believe 
that the people whom I left bo confident and asanred of 
triumph should be bo reduced in spirit in five short 
months! Gud forbid you abould believe that tbearmy 
which then came forth in sueh proud and gallant array 
can be broken down to such a craven preference ! Wa 
grumble, indeed, as soldiers will, and as these soldiers 
hiive had good reason to grumble. I have done my share 
of it (I am ashamed to think, u little more than my shore); 
but I grumble henceforth no more. And all we grumbling 
soldiers, now we find that the people of the North are 
nsurping our (as we supposed) exclusive privilege, orratber 
following our bad exatnple, are going to shut our mouths, 
and relieve ourselves in hard blows at the enemy, instead 
of hard woids at our friends. I believe this is coming \o 
be tlie spirit of our army, what is left us. Our leaders 
may make blunders, and put us in wrong and difficult 
positions ; but an army of brave and determined men can 
change even a blunder into a glorious stroke of policy, 
and a mistake into a victory. 

I am obliged to acknowledge, that, notwithstanding our 


braTebulletinBaudonrdreadMloBaes, there has been, after 
all, even in our grandest battles, but little real figbtiag. 
It takes aa array of recruits a good while to learn that it 
is less dangeroua to push right on to an enemy's battery 
than to get up within range, and lie down and be shot all 
Xo pieces by it. Charge right home on the works of your 
foe : you won't lose half bo many men aa in lying the same 
lime within range ; and when you have reached him, face 
tfl face and band to hand, the attacking party has all the 
advantage. The defenses you feared, and in which he 
trusted, are overcome : a hundred to one he rung, and 
you, with a cheer, tear down the rebel rag, and run up the 
glorious stara and stripes ! Let us hope we have learned 
this most iniportant truth. Why, even at Fredericksburg, 
under all the disadvantagesof our attack, the main cause of 
our overwhelming loss, aa any man with half an eye could 
see, was, that our lines, when they had passed through 
that loDg gantlet of fire, and reached almost the very 
ibot of the enemy's works, lay down, and began to return 
the enemy's fire, and remained till their forces had almost 
meltod away in the-focus of that arc of musketry and can- 
nonading. Their work, difEcult and well-nigh impossible 
as it was, was woU-nigh accomplished. A few rods more 
of rapid advance wonld have put our flag into the enemy's 
works, and taken our men out of the thiokest of the firing, 
saved them the cruel neccsaty of retreating over the same 
long road of slaughter, and. in fact, changed Bumside's 


^^^[ witlist 

fetal blunder" into a glorious victory anJ u masterly 
l^ecQ of strategy I So endoth jonr correspondent's first 

leon in military criticism. 

I have varied my invalid-life to-day by a splendid gallop 
oa borseback, aomo four or five miles, over to the camp 
of the 21st Wassachu setts, to pay ray respects to my 
old friend a&d classmate, the gallant and dashing Col. 
Clark, your familiar aciiuaiotanee, and, aa we hear whifl- 
pereJ in military eirclos, not unlikely to become soon, not 
withstanding hb comparative youth, a brigadier. His 
lent, reduced in a dozen hard battles (four cam- 
paigns, as they may bo truly called, in a single year ; 
TO., under Burnnide in North Carolina, under Pope 
through Virginia, under McCleSlaa in Maryland, now 
under Eumsido again on the Rappahannock) to scarcely 
more than a single company, is still in good heart and 
coorago, and bound to sustain the well-earned reputation 
of the "fighting 21st." 

But I am making up for my long silence by a weari- 
some prolixity ; so that, whereas you may have regretted 
not hearing from me, you now will still more regret the 

P. S. (Important: tlie very latest !) — We received 
orders t»-day. the whole army, to move forward to-mor- 
row morning. But learning, just at sundown, that the 
enemy are not rjnite prepared, our orders are this moment 
countermanded. We wait till Monday. Look out for 
news next week ! 

Jak. 33, ises. 

T Tfy. army has tried to move, and been prevented 
by reasons over which man has no control. The 
order came to advance again across the Rappahannock, 
and meet the enemy. Tuesday morning, camps were 
broken up, tente atmck, knapsacks packed; and soon long 
liaea of troops were in motion over hill and dale all 
around us. The roads for miles were ckoked with sup- 
ply-wagons, amrannition- trains and rumbling batteries. 
All was noise, confusion, and utmost activity. Trumpets 
sounded, drums beat, whips cracked, mules squealed, and 
teamsters cursed. lu short, all things showed that a vast 
army was on the move. Excitement took the place of the 
quiet that had reigned in our midst for a month. Hearts 
beat high with hope and patriotic ardor, and spirits sank 
in dismay at the thought of approaching danger, wounds, 
and death. Some left couches of sickness, roused to new 
strength at the call to arms. Some, who had been per- 
fectly well, paled into sudden sickness at the same pros- 
pect, and came aneakmg round the surgeons' tents, and 
crawling into h 


^^^H For oureelvBE, under ordetB to be ready for instant 
^^^^LttSTch, our re^ment waited tbroagh the livelong day, 
^^^^Binth three days' cooked rations in their haversacks, and 
^^^P^ty rounds of ball-cartridge disposed about their per- 
sons; blankets, shelter- tents, &c., rolled up, and gnna at 
hand to march in a momcDt ; all constituting a fair mule's 

Pload, and what ia, in military phrase, facetiously termed 
''light mai^ching order," — waited all day, watching the 
troops, that roUed like a river unceasingly by ns, and 
wondering when ne should be emptied into the stream; 
I bot waited, moat fortunalely for us, in vain. For the 

I clouds gathered all day thicker and darker, and night 

ushered iu a storm of wind and pouring rain, harder for 
\. that moving army to encounter than a hundred ihousaad 

I enemies ; a driving rain that drenched and chilled the poor 

' shelterless men and horses, and that poached the ground 

I into mud deeper than the New-England mind can conceive 

of, and stickier than — well, I am at a loss for a similifcade. 
I Pitch, for cohesive attraction, b hut as sand compared 

with it. So the artillery and the wagons stuck fast on 
Wednesday; the pontoons couldn't go on wheels ; and, 
though the rain continued in floods, there wasn't quite 
enough to carry them by water ; and so the river rose, and 
couldn't he crossed ; and so every thing got mixed up, and 
all our fine arrangements spoiled ; and wo experienoed the 
uneerhdnly that attends human events, and espeoially a 
winter oampaign in Virginia. And so our noble Bom- 

irtTD cAifPAiay. 


side goes up to report hn disappointment at Wjishington ; 
and tbe array conies dmgglog back, in the docp mad and 
drizzling rain, to its old rjuarters. All yesterday and to- 
day, tlie bedraggled and tired regiments are papsing us j 
and all the roads and streams arc full nf dead horses and 
mules (I presume fifty are ia sight from the top of the hill 
back of my tenf). and pieces of wagons, and the way ob- 
atruoted with caisaoas, and piocea of artillery, and pontoons, 
and bU sorts of vehicles, last in the mud. 

We must wait till the earth ia dried ap a little from 
the effects of this storm, and then try it again, running the 
game risks. And I suppose poor Barnsiile must take al! 
the bhime of Ciilures now ; wbereas I am disposed to look 
back to the man who kept us two monlhs in inactivity, after 
tbe battle of Antietam, in the most beautiful and precious 
time of the whole yeav, lo find the shoulders on ■which to 
lay the blame. However, finding faalt now isn't going 
tfl help the past. Something must he done even now, aa 
you and the whole North tell m. Only you must con- 
aider what a winter's campaign in these regions reaUy 
means, when you make np your judgment of us and our 
doings. It means Ui the soldiers wet feet every day of 
the march, the cold ground to lie upon, and insuEGcient 
fbod for them to eat. It means coughs, cold?, cou'ump- 
tioDS, rheumatism, and fevers ; a row of unmarked graves 
all along the track of the army, and desolation and morim- 
iag to thousands of pleasant homes. It means the pain of 



hCciDg in every company brave fellows sinking right down 
to death before your eyes, with no possibility of helping 
them, or even doing much to soothe their last hours. 

It means, if battle comes, the wounded lefb to freeze in 
the severity of the nights, or to mingle their blood with 
the deep mud on which they lie. It means every possible 
form of human suffering, privation, and hardship. Make 
all allowances for us, then, and pray for our sti^ength, en- 
rlurance, and success ; and drop a tear over the brave fel- 
lows who are sacrificed, not merely to the demon of battle, 
but to the more dreaded severities of the winter season. 


Camp near Falmouth, Va., Feb. 26. 
Give me a ** Hartford Times," or some other appropriate 
receptacle, for I am nauseated; I am sick, poisoned; 
have taken something, that, most emphatically, doesn't 
agree with me ; have swallowed the vile and traitorous 
resolutions of the recent Democratic Convention at Hart- 
ford ; and have read in connection some of the speeches on 
the same occasion, filled with ribaldry and profanity just 
about in keeping with the whole spirit of the meeting; 
and I am ashamed and confounded, disgusted and grieved, 
to see what proportions treason has attained even in dear 
old New England. I knew that such things were talked in 
the darker sKictions of our Western Egypt ; I wouldn't have 
been surprised to read of proceedings a little like those at 


Hartford, as having taken place in some very ignoiuiit dia- 
trict in Southern Indiana: but in Connecticut — fiiugh.' I 
can't begiTi to expraas my feelings ; and yet I am obliged 
to confess Ihot I am one of her citizens. If the dear old 
State doesn't apew out of her mouth tliis ill-savoring Tom 
Seynwur Deraocracy at tlie coming April election, we of 
the army will march North, instead of South, to get at 
the heart of the Rebellion. 

Talk about demoralization of the army ! Well, we 
have faKeu pretty low. We haven't the same stiain of 
lofty patrlollsm in our talk as wlion we first came out. 
We have been knocked round and starved and frozen, 
till we have some of us forgotten the distinction between 
a good government and its sometimes corrupt agents ; and, 
in our personal indignation, have lost sight, for the mo- 
ment, of our correct prineiplea. We have said many 
things that wwe not complimentary to our lawful, civil, and 
military leaders; yea, we have said many things that we 
shall be ashamed of if we ever get homo : but I do still 
fnlly believe and hope, that, if any man should talk snch 
finil stuff as that of this modem Hartford Convention in 
any of our camps, we should have principle and decency 
enough left to roll bim in one of our Vir^nb gutters, and 
drum bim out of camp. Thank Qod, wo are not so de- 
moralized yet as to sufier downright earnest treason to be 
talked in our presence I 

But enough of such a disgusting subject. Let ua roll 

120 nryy browne m the armt. 

some more pleasantly flavored morsel under our tongae 
to get that taste out of our mouth. Spring is coming, — 
our time of hope, of fresh life and vigor ; our time of ac- 
customed triumph. Tlie winter is almost over. Let us 
hope that the ** winter of our discontent," of our dist- 
eouragcment, reverses, and distress, shall pass away with 
it ; and that when the mud dries up, and the grass grows 
green, we may also ** dry up " our murmurings, and our 
laurels grow green. I look for a great series of spring 
victories like those of last year, — of grand, crushing, 
final victories ; victories that shall shut off all question 
of foreign intervention, make such a performance as this 
Hartford Convention a thing for even Connecticut Sey- 
mour Democrats to be ashamed of, and take away every 
shadow of hope from their fellow-traitors at the South. 
I say, I am looking for such victories. I shall continue 
to look for them very attentively and anxiously. Oh, 
how happy we shall be if we only find them I 



SPEAKING of mules, did I tell you a little anecdote 
illustrative of the suicidal spirit that sometimes takes 
possession of these dulcet-voiced animals, who lull me 
to rest by their nightly melodies here on the sweet plains 
of Old Virginia ? The other morniog, as I was taking the 
air a little before breakfast (in other words, lugging a big 
log of firewood a couple of miles through the mud, to camp, 
on ray shoulder), stopping a few moments to admire the 
beautiful scenery before me (as well as to rest my back a 
bit), I noticed quite a commotion in the water of a littlo 
stream that flows through the valley below where I was 
standing. Three men wore up to their middle in the 
brook, pulling and lifting at some large object, which I 
took to be a stump, or log of wood, which they were trying 
to rescue from the flood for the fire. Bub soon up drove 
another man with a span of mules, and a long log-chain 
attached, which he quickly passed in to his comrades, and 
they dexterously fastei ed round a projecting part of tlie 
object in their" hands. Crack goes the whip, and out 


% .. ^ 


ening l.ho Soiithoni Confederacy in any mensuio lo that 
mule seeking eelf-destruction, and cojiclude tha.t our only 
way is aclually to hilch on. and " snalie " the creature 
out by a rope round its neck t Isn't the trouble with our 
Union team sometbing like this, — tliat one bitches on to 
this leg, and another to that one, and another to the slip- 
pery ttui or ear, and thus act ineffectually or against each 
other, instead of tackling right round the neck of the 
beast with one long pull, strong pull, and pull all together? 
Certainly, if mnlea and Southern Confederacy were none 
of them in existence, we should all sleep better nights 
these times ; for the cold "spell of weather" brings us 
sn unnsuat amount of muaio from the cnuipbining animals 
shivering in the midnight winds, and iho raids of the 
rebels niidie us frequent and untimoly alarms. Some say 
three brigades of cavalry ure prowling around this side of 
the river, roaming up and down like raging lions, seeking 
what sleeping brigadiers they may devour; others, that 
fifteen thousand infantry iiiiTO crossed over a few miles 
above us, and are wut<;hing for an exposed flank on which 
to attack us. But, in either case, it strikes me that our 
foes are mighty invisible. If wo should cross over to 
their side, somebody would probably see us in the course 
of a few days, and be inquiring what we were aAer. The 
weather is pretty good, if it wasn't so bitter cold ; and the 
mnd begins lo dry u|), so that the " tops of the mountains 
(^pear " occasionally, and we can have faith to believe 


that there is firm ground somewhere underneath even 
our most desperate mire-holes. Kobins and ^blue-birds 
are about us. Spring is coming, and with it movement, 
life, energy, success, let us hope, to our armies. 



YOUR correspondent feels refreshed. He has taken 
something that agrees with him, — a delightful 
trip back to home and friends, an invigorating breath of 
New-England air, ten days of relief from the monotony of 
camp-life ; not ten short days of respite whose pleasure was 
clouded by the thought of a speedy return to stem warfare, 
but ten long and most happy days, full of enjoyment, full 
of greetings and hearty welcomes, of the blessings of aged 
parents and brothers and sisters, of tender wifely love, and 
the sweet caresses of children ; days whose remembrance 
will lighten up this whole coming spring campaign, with 
all its weary marches and night-watches, and scenes of 
blood ; yea, even soften the bitterness of wounds and 
of death, if one be called thereto. 

Only once in the seven months, up to this return to 
civilized life, had I undressed, and slept in a bed. T had 
some doubts as to how I should bear the trial now; 
some expectation that I might have to take a sheet, and 
pin \t down over some crot^hed sticks in the door-yard for 
a tent, in order to get a comfortable rest. But no : I find 



I can yet easily submit to the effo.:iinacy of honses and 
Ijccls, and good meals, and Christian habits of life. I was 
quite struck, during my short sojourn in your conntiy, 
**lloi)ul>lican," with the size of your rooms, the higbt 
and grandeur of your houses, the convenience of tables to 
eat from, as compai-ed with low boxes which you can't 
put your. legs under, and chairs with backs to sit upon, as 
compared with camp-stools or the damp ground. There 
are very many things indeed in your mode of life which 
an impartial observer must acknowledge to bo more 
agreeable than some of our soldierly ways. But, to leave 
the minor differences unspoken of, the grand advantage 
you have over us is — women. Having had scarcely a 
glimpse of a petticoat for a series of months, and, when 
seen, nearly always with a black face and thick lips above 
it, I confess to the most alFectionate and loving emotions 
towards the sex during my recent vacation, even when 
merely thrown accidentally into their society in a rail-car. 
And not the young and pretty ones merely. Indeed, 
the multitudes of rosy, plump-faced, ringleted young crea^ 
tures that I saw lierc and there on the journey, seemed, 
somehow, too much chattorboxes and gigglers, and (may I 
say it ?) thoughtless of any thing save their own pretty 
selves, for these serious times of ours. Those that I 
heard making the most noise, and disturbing most the 
quiet of a car and steamer, were not drunken soldiers 
(of whom we had occasionally a few on board), but gig- 



gling young misses with piles of liuoks under tkeii* arms. 
No: those tliat most attracted my interest and attention 
(except, perhaps, the little childreo, whom I always lovo) 
were the older faces, on which lines of thought appear, 
where charuetcr has had time to express ilsilf, — the wives, 
(he matrons, the grandmothera ; the qniet, thoughtful, 
floraetimes sad and looely face, whose eye lighted up with 
a ray of recognition as it observed a soldier's dress, as 
though a husband or a brother or s. son were !□ the fur- 
away army ; the lady in mourning, who sat in a corner 
seat, whose eyes filled with such a tide of emotion at 
Mght of a uniform, that I waa on the point of asking her 
in what battle ber liusbaud was killed ; tlio gi'ay-headed 
old lady of seventy years, perhaps, who sat by my side, 
and asked if I knew her two grandsons in the army of 
the Potomac, and talked with such hearty entliusiasm in 
tlieir praise ; the young mother, with a three-year-old boy. 
coming down on the boat to Aquia Creek, and on with us 
in a rough baggage«ar, to make happy the hut of her 
officer-husband by a short visit to him in his winter-quar- 
ters ; the many, many noble women whom I heard utter 
such patriotic BCntimcnts, whii Beemed so anxious to en- 
courage the hearts of the soldiers, and whose yery great 
sauiifices in the country's cause I aiji acquainted with, — 
these were the beautiful facoa to my eyes, these are the 
ones who are miniatured on our hearts when we go 
into perils, and stand nigbt-watohes, and make weary 


mai*ehc3. God bless the women of New England, the 
women of our whole North ! I don't believe there are 
many Copperheads among them. I was right glad to go 
home ; all ready to come back. I made yon a bow as I 
passed your door, so to speak, riding up the dear old Con- 
necticut Valley. Will try to drop in upon you next time. 



March 24. 

WHEREAS, We have heard the statement made, 
and seen it published, that a majority of the 14th 
Regiment Connecticut Volunteers would like to see the 
election of Thomas H. Seymour as governor, and would 
indorse the platform of the recent (so-called) Democratic 
Convention at Hartford ; and whereas, we fear lest some 
complaints which we, officers and men, have in time past 
made, and considered that the treatment we received from 
Government agents justified us in making, may have been 
misconstrued, a? evidence that we have changed our views 
since coming out, and do not now heartily support the 
Glovemment in crushing out high-handed rebellion : there- 
fore — 

Resolved, That the 14th Regiment Connecticut Volun- 
teers rejoices in the privilege it has enjoyed of doing and 
of suffering for the Constitution and the Government, 
the laws and the Union ; and counts all the losses it has 
sustained as so many saciifices made in the most noble of 
earthly causes, — the cause of rational liberty and human 

9 129 


ripjhts, not for ono nalion only, but for tho race, — the 
cause of republican government; of democracy against 
ari.-tocrac}', of freedom against slavery. 

Resolved, That, so far from having repented the senti- 
ments of patriotism and devotion which animated us in 
coming into ihc field last August, we feel that the blood 
of our ?lain brothers, our best and dearest, cries unto us 
out of the ground, even tho bloody battle-grounds of An- 
tietani and Fredericksburg, to go forward with the more 
firnnicss and energy in our righteous cause, and carry our 
torn banners deeper into the ranks of our country's foes. 

Resolved, That, complaining of nothing but irresolution, 
mismanagement, and lack of energy in putting down the 
Rebellion, we go in most emphatically for tho earnest, 
thorough, and rapid prosecution of tho war; the condign 
punishment of those in high or low stations, through 
whose corruption, or personal rivalries, or concealed treason, 
our resources have been wasted, and our armies defeated ; 
and tho speedy conclusion of the war in the only honor- 
able way which we are as yet able to see to that end, i.e. 
the submission of our enemies, and the restoration of the 
authority of the Government through tho length and 
breadth of our land. 

Resolved, That we utterly despise and abhor, as tho 
meanest of all treason, the effort that is being made in 
many parts of the North to take advantage of the revei'ses, 
and consequent temporary discouragement of our people, 


tfl bring about a dishonorable peace, which would give 
up, in substance, the whole issue we have been lighting 
for, aclinowledge ourselvea to have been in the wrong 
from the beginning, and make the blood of our brave and 
beloved brothers, slain in thia conflict, virtually blood 
spilled by our own murderous hands ; that we hold these 
home traitors to he worse tbnn the armed traitors wo racet 
in the field, a disgrace to our people, a "fire in the 
rear "' of onr patriot army, tliat ought not to l« tolerstfid ; 
and rely on our friends at home, — all true and loyal men, 
— all real democrats, without distinction of party, to rise 
in their might, and put down these enemies with the bal- 
lot, while we (rythe bullet upon the comparatively more 
open and honorable enemies to the southward. 

The above roaoiulions were adopted by the 14th Regi- 
ment of Connecticut Volunteers, on dress-parade, Tues- 
day nif^ht, March 24, with almost perfect unanimity; 
only one officer in the whole field, staff, and lino, dissents 
ing, and five or sis enlisted men ; and two or throe of 
these last said thoy should have voted yea, only they 
eoaldn't hear the whole paper very distinctly at the end 
of the line, and were not going to vote for any thing that 
they did not thoroughly understand, A copy, attested by 
the commander and tbe adjutant of the regiment, is to 
be sent for publication in the Connecticut papers. 

Similar and even stronger resolutions have bcon sent on 
to Connecticat from other regiments in the field; and 


what(jvor lying letters may be published in the "Register" 
or " Times '' or '' Sentinel and Witness" (" Sentinel and 
Wickedness'' the boys here call it), as to the conversion 
of the soldiers to Reymourism, and their universal or 
very general dissatisfaction with the war, you may rely on 
the army as altogether patriotic, and earnest for crushino' 
out the E^bellion. Their dissatisfaction has been with 
the management of the war, and not with the war. They 
now wish it ended, but ended in the only right way. 
They long to go home, but to go home with honor. They 
will give a great deal for peace. They will not give their 
country, their principles, their conscientious convictions 
of duty, for it. Tliey dislike to waste their lives. They 
are still ready to pour out their blood like water, if it may 
bo made to avail in their country's defense, and the over- ' 
throw of her enemies. I say this, firmly believing it to 
be true of the main body of our troops. There is an 
occasional tired and discontented man who would go home 
at any price, — an occasional one who would sacrifice his 
principles to his bodily ease and safety ; and, if I had such 
principles, I would sacrifice them the first chance I could 
get. In short, there is an occasional Tom Seymour Demo- 
crat in the army ; but the proportion of them to the 
whole army is not greater than that of Judas Iscariot to 
the other disciples. 



I WISH you would visit the Army of the Rappahan- 
nock. You might not leam much about war, because 
that hasn't been in our line of business for some months 
past ; but there are a good many things you would learn, 
I doubt not, that would add to your stock of experience 
not a little, and be of great use to you in all your future 
career. For instance, if you didn't confess to getting 
some new notions on the subject of architecture, I would 
be willing to pay your expenses out and back myself 
Now, as doubtless you wish " Mrs. Republican," and the 
little ** Republicans," to be housed in the most appropriate 
and tasteful way, and cheapest withal (the newspaper 
business can't be very profitable, I take it, with the pres- 
ent high prices of the raw material), really hadn't you 
better think of it ? Why, I have a house myself I would 
like to show you, with a brown mud front, water in every 
part of it, at this present writing, and all the modern 
(army) improvements, including a real door on hinges, 
with a latch to it ; a chimney that never smokes (unless 
the wind is very strong from the north-east) ; fireplace 



warranted stonc-backcd, and garnished with actual crane- 
hooks ; our patent army transparent water-proof roofing ; 
and every thing about the whole building so convenient, 
that I may say I can put my hand upon it, sitting here by 
the fire, as I am, with my feet upon the mantel (not mar- 
ble ; that proves too cold for comfort) , in true Yankee 
Etyle. The parlor, sitting-room, dining-room, and library 
are so arranged as to be easily thrown together into one 
apartment. The sleeping-rooms are well ventilated ; and, 
to be brief, tlic whole forms a snug tenement for a family 
of suitable size, such as is rarely to be found, and I 
might add, if you won't charge this as an advertisement, 
could bo rented on easy terms, with a limited amount of 
furniture, as tlie owner is thinking of moving to Rich- 

Tliere is a good deal of variety in the style of army 
architecture. My own building is a severe classic, with- 
out ornament, rather low and heavy, inclining to the 
Doric, or perhaps even to the Egyptian order. But we 
have specimens of the airiest, most fantastic Gothics, of 
the tasteful Corinthian capitals, of fluted Ionic columns, 
of Moorish arches and Arabesque ornaments, of the Chi- 
nese pagoda roofing, of tlie " & la catacomb '' excavations. 
One of my neighbor's is nearly on the model, on a some- 
what smaller scale, to be sure, of the Athenian Parthenon; 
yet I presume the idea of imitating the proportions of that 
ancient structure never entered hif mind. Some model 



aflor a heatiien t«inp!o, some after a Yankee wood-slied, 
Eome after an InillaD wigwam, iind some afior a wood- 
chuck's hole. But tlie Ilotleutot sljlv of areliltecture, 
on the whole, it must he confessed, prevails over every 
other ; and for every kind of structure that can rise out 
of Mother Earth, that can be created from Virginia mad, 
with some ribs and framework of logs, let me commend 
you to this whole region round about. I eooldn't do full 
juBtice to the subject, however, in a dozen letters ; so I 

may as well stop in o 
est inhahitanla here a 
to wonder at ; sonio 
Btmeture that, has rise 
If I bad paid a nn 

le place aa another. Why, we old- 
e finding evpry day aomelhing new 
still more extraordinary oddity of 
1 out of the ground, 
re faithful attention, in my early 
college-days, to my good fiiend Prof. Tyler's Satnrilay- 
morning recitations in that delightful work, the " Manual 
of Classical Literature," I might have done Letter juatiee 
to the subject I have here attompted. Supposing, at that 
time, that I should always carry about with me a copy of 
that scholar's vai/e menum (little idea had my verdant 
mind then of the amount of baggage a Unitod-States ofBeer 
would lie allowed to carry, or, indeed, of the career military 
that was in the far future before me), I unfortunately neg- 
lected to commit it all to memory. Still, if I had the 
whole architectural portion thereof perfectly in mind, I 
couldn't have described ail the orders and styles of which 
we have specimens. I am taking notes, and making di-aw- 


ings and elevations, however, to aceompunj some sag- 
gestiuns I mean to uiake to the professor, with reference 
to a now edition of that immortal work. If he objects to 
my materiel as being too modern to embody into a work 
on eluf'sieal antiquities, I shall show him that a hirge part 
(it* what I describe already exists only as i-uins ; and that 
the whole certainly has a greater appearance of age than 
many of the fresh and ever-beautiful ruins we looked on 
togeiher in Italy, Greece, and Egypt. 

Ah ! what a contrast between those days of wandering 
amidst the beauty, glory, and decay of the Old World, 
wandering in peace for liealch and pleasure and education, 
and these marches of war, and scenes of camp ! between 
*'tent life in the Holy Land " and tent life on Virginia 
soil in rebel times I And yet there is a sort of simi- 
larity between them too; and I sometimes forget all 
our warlike accompaniment and paraphernalia, and enjoy 
the wild out-of-door ficcdom of camp life, the strange 
scenes and companionships one meets, and the new ex- 
periences of men and of life he passes through. There is 
a great deal of poetry in war and in camp, after all, 
though somowliat smothered in mud here at present. 


Wo have not been in winter-quarters, — oh, no ! not the 
slightest ; but, it must bo confessed, we have made a rather 
long encampment here on the banks of the Bappahan- 


nock. Zckiel didn't " sit up " with Huldah las' Sunday 
night; ho only made her a call ; lo be sure, it was half- 
past one when he went away. It was early in December 
when we bivouacked iinioug these forest-covered hills and 
ravines : it is late in April now that wo are gathering 
up onr traps to leave. The forests have disappeared. 
The whole country is intersected with roads leading from 
one city, of ten or five thousand inhabitants, to another, 
Every knoll and gnl!y and prnjoeting rock is familiar to 
our eje.s. The winter has passed over hh, and gone. 
We have had our houses, and dwelt in them ; our daily 
routine of duties, and performed them ; our pleasures, and 
enjoyed them ; our dreams and reveries, our hopes and our 
Borrows, our letters and our newspapers, our Sabbath ser- 
vices, our hospitals, and all their touching Bcencs; we 
have had Our graveyards, and been buried in them. So 
that, perhaps, after all, it is very much aa if we had been 
in winter-f^uarters. If it isn't Thomas, it is his twin- 

There is nothing very attractive about this locality. It 
ia bare, bleak, and desolate ; muddy, dusty, and in ruins ; 
nil the beauty trampled out long ago under the ruthless 
tread of a great army. And there are no visions of glory 
to endear it to our memory; no successes gained, no 
wreaths and laurels, to crown it in onr recollections : and 
yet it is Bomehow a Uttle hard to pull up our stakes, and 
tear down our walls for departure, after all. We have some- 


i\\\\v^ of a homc-fcoling for our poor little mnd-built cities. 
Our streets are not Broadways ; but a part of our life has 
grown round those little log-huts, and chimneys of plas- 
tered stieks. A home is a home, if it is in a Ilottentot 
kraal. It is with a soit of shrinking and momentaiy 
reluctance tliat we push out from the little eddy where we 
have lain so snugly for a time, and commit ourselves again 
to the raging cuiTent of war. But it must be. The 
stream of events has gotten hold of us, and we are whirled 
along. Nay, rather, we are intending, under Providence, 
to constitute a part of the moving power ourselves, to do 
something towards shaping the course of things for the 
months to come. 3Iay Crod make this army of the Po- 
tomac or Rappahannock a sort of lesser providence to 
shape for good the destiny of this nation in these critical 
weeks that are now upon us ! 

I shall not tell you, dear ** Republican," where we are 
going to-morrow, or the next day, or the day after ; be- 
cause I would not wish your enterprising sheet to set forth 
prematurely any plans that should give aid and comfort 
to the enemy, and also because — I don't know ; but, 
should we enter Richmond in triumph before the 4th of 
July, I pledge you my word to give you_an early and 
authentic account of the festivities of the Independence 
Day, and a condensed report of the speeches from the 
State-house steps. At present, I am at some considerable 
distance from the rebel capital. 



April 25, 1563. 
"E hare been having shewers constanlly for the last 
two montlia, and now it Iiaj^ ttirued into a Betded 
ram. Of all the wet seasons that erei threatened to drown 
out and waah away this dirlj continent of oura, this is the 
climas. There ia no " oldest inhabitant " of thcBO regions 
to inquire of, else I would get his testiniony to add to my 
own ; but, if you don't believe me, come out here, and 
lake the testimony that comes down &om the skies in a 
continual dropping from morning tiU night, and from night 
till morning. I suppose Noah may have espcricBoed 
harder niin after ho drew in the gjng-plank of his " Great 
Eastern," with his menagerie "aU aboard," quietly awaitr 
ing the commencement of Ms voyage to the New World ; 
bnt I don't believe he heard it patter so many nights over 
Ilia head, in the old ark-attie, as I have now heard it pattering 
on iho canvas roof of mj log-shanty this spring. If this 
army could only move in an ark over against the rebels, 
and on to Kicbraond, it wouldn't make so much difference ; 
but, we being i-estricted to legs, it would seem, to our 



human judgment, desirable that the rainy season might 
come to an end. At least, there is nothing for us now 
but to wait till the shower is over, and the puddles dried 

Meantime, while we are waiting, what are we doing with 
ourselves ? When a great army is doing nothing, how is it 
employed ? Well, it is said, you know, that idlers always 
have the hardest kind of a life to live. However it may be in 
other things, certainly soldiers have to be pretty busy even 
doing nothing. An army, lying still, is always on the 
move. Its ordinary functions of respiration and nutrition 
keep in motion a good many active agencies. It eats and 
drinks through the toils of a host of busy commissaries 
and teamsters, and details of men by night and by day. 
It doesn't put on its clothes but by the labor of many 
hands, and the thought of many brains. " To keep its 
pot boiling " requires the rumbling of many fuel wagons, 
and uses the limbs of thousands of braying mules. It 
doesn't sleep at night but with its eyes wide open ; and 
every officer and every soldier has to take his turn, about 
once in three or four days, as eye for his regiment or 
camp. It keeps its long arms stretched out in all direc- 
tions, feeling for danger, and avoiding surprise : and all, in 
turn, must take their share of this active duty ; eaxjh serv- 
ing his turn as a finger, so to speak. 

And so, with guard and picket, inspections, parades, 
and reviews, with all the little and great, necessary and on- * 


Doccijsary, raattere of camp-life, rabbing^ap of grma and 
digtribnting radons, writing letters and attending coorts- 
Diartial, bringing wood and water and plaeteiing houses, 
reading newspapers and pitcbing qndte, wo manage to fill 
up pretty ea^y all tbe worldng-houre of the twenly-fimr. 
A little time to road or Btndy, a little time to chat, a little 
time to meditate, a little time to devote to the dear ones at 
home, and, it must be confessed, a good deal of time for 
sleeping, eating, and lounging, and our day gets by from 
"reveille" to "tattoo," and throngb the nighl-waWbeB 
to morning roll-call again ; a dull, monotonoas, stupid, in- 
di^ront makeshift of a life, soon to be broken in upon 
by the esdtement of a great and eventful campaign. Ef 
I mite you nothing, dear " Eepubliean." it is because I 
haye nothing to write you. 

Chanceli^iistille BirrLE-FiELD, Muy 2, 1863. 

This has been a moat beautiful night; bright moonlight. 
We slept vety little, lying upon our arms all night; our 
brigade in line of battle, and ezpectlng to go into action 
at any moment, from about noon to midnight : wo were 
not called in, however. Tbe action yesterday was very 
severe, hut indecisive ; we were advancing quite rapidly 
in the morning, and, I suspect, without much thought of 
the enomy'a making a aland, when they opened on us ; 
and some of oar troops thrown out as skirmishers did not 
behave very well. They drove back one or two of our 


diviaiooa for a time, and, at one o'clock, things looked 
nncom fort able ; liut fresh troops went up on the douhle- 
c[aii;k, and we drove tbeai back with hoavy loss on both 
sides. Wo don't know much how things lie this loom- 
ing, but hope that we shall gain a great viclory to-day. 
We rose at three o'clock, fed and saddled our horses, had 
some coffee and hard-bread, and have been waiting for 
orders to march over sinoe- It is now about soTen 
o'clock. The night was so cold, I could not sleep. The 
day was very hot. the night very cold. We lay ou some 
fence pickets laid on the ground. The eastern sky at 
sunrise was red like blood. The sun is just at this mo- 
ment breaking out ; but, on the whole, the prospect is 
for rain before night. Moreover, yesterday was quite 
fine ; and such a thing as two Rne days in succession 
would bo indeed an absurd thing to expect in this re^on. 

"They say " that we have a line of batlle in half- 
moon shape, conre: towards the enemy, and a splendid 
position ; and that the bridges in ihe rear of the eneniy 
are dcsttoyed, bo that they can't lotreat without immense 
loss, and so must now fight decisively. Our army is in 
grand spirits. Gen, Ilooker is riding along the lines, and 
the, men are cheering him madly. 

Gen. Stonewall Jackson charged down upon our front 
this rooming (they say) in deep, heavy columns along 
the plank-road : our batteries opened on him, big and 
Utile guna, and plowed him through and through, so 


that liU troops retreated a mile and a half in double- 
qaick time. 

Eleven, a.m. — Ifothing done yet in the way of fight- 
ing since seven o'clock. The day is pleasant : we have 
marched out a mile to a new position in the line of bat- 
tle, thrown out akirmiahors, and arc now dig^ng a sort of 
rifle-pit to protect a weak spot in our lino. 

Three, p.m. — Still nothing done! The cannon are 
roaring around us, but not much musketry save skirmish- 
ing. We are in an open field of perhaps a hundred acres, 
lying with stacked arms, waiting an attempt of the enomy 
to flank ua on the left. It would seem, however, that 
he has abandoned the attempt, or some change of strategy 
is adopted ; for we lie perfectly idle. Our long lino of 
rifle-pits, three feet wide and two and a half deep, is com- 
pleted the whole length of one side of the field, the dirt 
thrown up so as to make a four or five feet barrier. Very 
likely we may have no use for it, however. 

Six, P.M. — Hard fighting agjin, terrific musketry and 
cannonade from the enemy ; our guns ceasing a while for 
the twelfth corps to storm the enemy's hasty intrenoh- 
menta. Our boys are moving on nobly, and, we think, 
have already carried the works, as the musketry grows 
less terrific and more distant. Glorious old Hooker sits 
quietly on bis horse, and directs the movements far in 
the front. Sometimes the storm of shot and shell, even 
before this last charge, during the artillery duel that has 


been kept up all day, was so tMck around liim, that his 
aides and orderlies could scarcely be induced to come and 
take his orders. The army is full of his praise. We 
hope for a great and decisive victory, and only fear that 
the enemy will find some way to slip out of our grasp. 
Just at this moment, things are perfectly still ; and I hard- 
ly think we can have much more fighting to-night. 

Eight, P.M. — We have met a serious reverse. Our 
eleventh corps, and the twelfth perhaps, have most shame- 
fully run ; and we are in danger of a defeat, which the Lord 
forbid I We shall have a hard time, and nobody knows 
who will live through it. I don't know as I want to, if we 
are now shamefully defeated. Oh ! some of our soldiers 
haven't their hearts in this thing, and haven't principle 
enough, I fear, to be worthy to fight in our noble cause. 
The rebels are desperate, and in earnest, by comparison, 
a^: least. Still I hope we shall make a victory of this. 

THERE ia nothing bo likely to secnre 
from prejudice, and felse views and representations 
of tilings, as lo take a fair look at both sides hefore ^ving 
hia final opinion upon any qnoBtion. Your correspondent, 
accordingly, having already taken a survey of the great 
Rebellion from the Northern side, has now crossed the fron- 
tier, and is making observations, with his usual philosophic 
imperturbability, upon the Soultem aspect of the eecesh 
monster. His oppottunify for this unbiaBed aod impartial 
view of things came to him on tliia wise ; He was acting 
on the staff of a general of brigade last Sabbath morning, 
in the thiek of the hxttle about Chaaeellorsville, Things 
were in a decidedly raised condition. The splendid semi- 
circular lino of battle of Gen. Hooker ha<l been broken 
the night before (Saturday, May 2) by the disgraceful 
failiu-e of the 11th and 12th army corps to maintain then- 
intrenched position, although attacked by a greatly infe- 
rior force of the enemy. Our brigade, the Ist in French's 
division, in the early Sabbath morning, was ordered to 



leave its podtion in rifle-pits pret^ well ovi^r to the left 
of our line, and crosa over the plank-road toward the 
right, to recoTor the ground, a portion of it, lost the night 
before. Our boys charged in splendid style through a 
thicket of tangled wood for half a mile or more, driving 
the enemy before them like chaff, slaying many, taking 
some prisoners, and fairly running over some, and leaving 
them in their rear. Indeed, they charged with too mnoh 
impetuosity, and advanced so far, that they were not prop- 
erly supported on the flanks, and were exposed to an enfi- 
lading firo of artillery aa well as musketry. To halt om' 
lino, and form it anew a little farther to tho rear in the 
woods, I was sent forward by tho general, together with a 
fine young friend, one of his aides ; both on foot, aa onr 
horses were lofl behind, aa utterly impracticable in that 
thicket of undergrowth. Wo had separated, he to the 
right, and I to the left ; delivered our order to the colonels ; 
and assisted in executing it in the midst of a fire, the most 
dmbolieal that my eyes have yet witnessed, from front and 
rear four own artillery from behind the wood occasionally 
dropped n shell among us) and both flanks, from at least 
sixty-four different points of compass, I should say ; and 
then I hastened to retrace my steps, to report progress to 
the general. I was hindered some little time in picking 
np prisonei's (whom I didn't like to leave with arms in 
their hands, in the rear of our line) . I would disarm, and 
put them in squads of three or four, in the charge of some 


one of our slightly woonded mon, first seeiDg t!iQt !iia gun 
was loaded and capped ; and tlien on again, till I had 
picked up some twenty or more of the "Buttemuta." 
Had a. eonplo of the fellows on my hands, and none of 
my own men in sight, and was hurtying them forward hy 
the persuajaoa of a cocked revolver, expecting every mo- 
ment to come upon our general ; when all at once, pressing 
through a terribly dense portion of the undergrowth, I 
found myself face to face, at not twelve feet distance, with 
it least a whole re^ment of the brownest and most ill- 
looking vagabonds that I ever set eyes on, — every one of 
ihem with a gun in Wa hand. — who were that moment ris- 
ing up from behind a long line of rifle-pita they had taken 
from us the night before. 

Here was a fix for an amiable and well-dispoaed eorre- 
Bpondent of yours, who had traveled some, and ought to 
have known better, to got himself into. Here was a big 
mouthful to swallow for a helligercat patriot, intent on 
squelching the Eebellion, who had just gotten his blood up, 
hadn't been fighting more than an hour, and was bound 
lo distinguish himself before niglit. Here was a capital 
chance for a man, who hod just gotten his baud in at the 
boaness of eaptming prisoners, to put a thousand or iif- 
teen hundred more in his bag, — if they would only let 
him. The undersigned is compelled to acknowledge, that, 
in this DUO instance, he found the situation too much for 
him. He had drawn a mighty big elephant in a lottery, 


and didn^t know what to do with him. One of the impn* 
dent wretches he had captured a few minntes befbre tamed 
round with a grin, and says, " Gap'en, I reckon things is 
different from the way they was ; and you'll hey to 'bw 
you're our prisoner now." A yeiy sensible remark of the 
young man, and timely, though he hadn't a shirt to his 
back, and only a part of a pair of pantaloons. Things 
VHU different from the way they were, with a ycngeancc. 
I gracefully lowered my pistol to an officer, who stepped 
out from the ranks, and presented it to him, apologiziag 
for so doing by the remark, that ''doubtless it would be 
more disagreeable for a whole regiment to surrender to one 
man, than for one man to surrender to a whole regiment." 
The hard-hearted fellows didn't seem to care at all for my 
mibfortime, and only laughed when I told them my story. 
I was courteously treated, and sent at once to the rear, 
minus my pistol and trusty sword (the loss of which I 
the more regretted, as it was not the purchase of money, 
but the gift of a friend) ; and so hath ended ingloriously, 
for the present, my military service. 

The transition from the fierce excitement of battle to 
the quiet stillness of my walk of near a mile through the 
woods with my guard was so great, that I could hardly 
realize it : it seemed the flitting of a vision before my 
mind's eye. The roar of the cannonade, and rattle of 
the musketry, sounded far away to me ; and I was like a 
boy rambling with a friend, in the forest, of a summer 


morning. Not for long, though, eonid the horrid siglita 
and Bounds of battle bo put away from one's thoughts. 
We BOOQ camo upon other portions of the bloody field, and 
had to pick our steps among mangled corpses of friend 
and foe ; past men without limbs, and limbs without mea i 
now seeing a group of surgeons and assistants operating 
on the wounded under a tree, and now pas,-iing a group 
of ambulance-men carrying on a streteher s> 
sufferer. Occasionally a wounded horse, 
his death-agony, would kick at us; and oceasionally a 
wounded seeeah would mutter a curse as he saw the 
" d— d Yankee " pass. And in a little time we were far 
in the reai', and I was turned over to the care of the pro- 
voat-inarshal, into a crowd of seventeeu hundred "Yan- 
kees," about to be marched in the Iffoihng sun, without a 
moutiful to cat, save the few who had their haversacks 
and rations with them, to Spottsylvania Court House, about 
ten miles distant. Never did that nice black horse I drew 
& few weeks ago from provident Uncle Sam seem a more 
desirablo underpinning to my weary, fleshly tabemaclo, 
than now that I eould only remember him left in the edge 
of that fatal forest, with my blankets and provisions on 
Ms back. 



RICHMOND 18 jubilant over the great victory that 
the South has gained, the tremendous thrashing 
the thivalry has given " the best unny on the planet;" 
though, to he Hure, their joy ia fringeil with mourning to- 
day over the funeral ceremonies of their hero, Jacl:son. 
Doubtless a great many reasons are given for our most 
ttisgraceful and disastrous defeat. There is only one real 
reason, and that the simplest possible. — our army didn't 
fight as well as that of our enemies.' We had every pos- 
sihle advantage. Our numbers more than doubled theirs 
till Longstreet's ro-enforoe meats came up, which didn't 
then bring their forces up tii a hundred thousand to 
oppose our hundred and thirty thousand. Indeed, it 
would now seem that Longstreet didn't come up at all. 
We had the advantage of position, and no ineonsidenible 
amount of intrenchraent. Gen. Hooker's plan was ad- 
mirably arraugod, and excellently carried out until the 
fighting took place. He exposed himself in the hottest 
places of danger, and set an electrifying example of hero- 
ism to the whole army. Tlie terrible loss of life among 



our generals showa, that, on the whole, they were not 
found wanting at their posts of duty. Wo bad men 
enough, well enough equipped, and well enough posted, 
(o have devoured the rugged, imperfectly armed and 
equipped host of our enemies from off the face of the earth. 
Their artillery horees are poor starved frames of heasts, 
tied on to their carringes and caissons with odds and ends 
of rope and strips of raw-hide. Their supply and amma- 
nition trains look like a congregation of all the crippled 
California emigrantrtmins that ever escaped off the des- 
ert, oat of the clutches of the rampaging Camancbe 
Indians. The men are ill dressed, ill equipped, and ill 
provided, — a set of ragamuffins that a man is ashamed 
to he seen among, even when he is a prisoner and can't 
help it. And yet they have beaten us fairly ; beaten us 
all to pieces ; beaten us so easily, that we are objects of 
contempt oven to their commonest private soldiers, with no 
shirts to hang out of the holes in then* pantaloons, and 
cartridge-hoses tied round their waists with strands of 
ropea. I say, thoy heat us easily ; for there hasn't been 
inueL of a fight up there oa the bank of the Itappahan- 
nock, afler all, the newapaporw to the contrary notwith- 
Etandtng. There was an awful noiso ; for I heard it. 
There was a tremendous amount of powder exploded;' 
)oT 1 saw the smoke of it ascending to heaven. There 
was a vast amount of running done " fiiced by the reai^ 
nnk;" bat I can not learn that there was, in any part of 



the field, very much real figbting. I have seen men from i 
every part of the ground fought over, men from almoat ' 
every division of the army, and have inquired diligently 
after every vestige of conflict ; and not one of tbem all had 
teen a great deal of spirited fighting, though a gnod 
many had heard a vast amount of tt. The particukr 
brigade or regiment or company of each man was cap- 
tured because the enemy appeared in vast numbers on 
their flank or in their rear. They didn't fight maoh, be- 
cause they were so unfortunately situated or surrounded, 
that there wasn't any use iu resisting. I never heard of 
BO much cross-firing, and enfilading fire, and fire in the 
rear, in all the histories of battles with which I ai 
qiiuinted. Do you point to the big lists of the killed and 
wounded, fifteen or twenty thousand on our side, as evi- 
dence of the desperate ness of the encounter 'I I tell you, 
that nben men get up, and run out of their rifle-pite aud 
breastworks like a flock of sheep, instead of staying 1 
^nd defending them, not only they deserve to be shot, but, 
as an actual matter of fact, about four times as many 
do get hit and killed as would he hurt if they did their 
soldierly duty like men. 

Am I saying things that oughtn't (o be spoken of oat 
of Bcbool, — that had better be smoothed over and ei- 
pliuned away? I'm not certain about that. I think peo- 
ple ought to understand, in n general way, about where 
the truth lies ; and I do not think soldiers cught to be 


eulogized, aad told that men never fought more gallantly 
on ihe face of the earth, and the rictory woald have been 
theirs if their offioera hadn't mismanaged, when, as a matter 
of iact, their officera gallantly did their duty, and were 
left to be kUIed or captured oq the field, because their 
men turned tail, and ran away from them. Mind, I don't 
mean to say that this was very generally the case in tho 
late battle ; but I do mean to say, that, according to my 
best information and belief, the gi'eat eleventh corps of 
our army, attaxiked by an inferior force of the enemy, 
gave way with only a shadow of resistanee, and ran out 
of their intrenchments Uke a parcel of frightened deer ; 
thus making a great gap in our grand lino of battle, and 
disconcerting all our good arrangements, and opening tho 
way for the disasters that foDowed : and, though a very 
large portion of the army did their duty fairly, I have yet 
to learn of any considerable body of troops that displayed 
that real gallantry, and determination to win, which only 
can restore a losing battle, and atone for the disgracofiil 
flight of the cowards and panio-etriuken. I know of whole 
regimenis and brigades, long and heavy lines of battle, 
that gave way before lines of the enemy, so thin and strag- 
gling as hardly to be eouKiderod more than skirmishers, 
I saw regiment after regiment, and brigade after brigade, 
of that corps I have mentioned, come pouring back 
through OUT reserves, till they covered acres and acres of 
ground, enough to have made a stand against all the 



rebels Iq Virginia; and only breaking our lines, and tell- 
ing sutli eoek-and-buU stories of being cut to pieces in 
front, aud surrounded and attacked in tlie reaF, as carried 
evidence of their absurdity on the very face of them, till 
I could have cried for shamo and grief to be obliged to 
acknowledge myself aa belonging to tbe same army. 

Still, in spite of all I have said, it !s by no nieaos the 
truth that our men are a parcel of cowards and poltroons. 
They are as brave as the average of people ; quite as 
brave as onr enemies are. But we don't fight in fluch a 
nae way aa they do. Shall I tell you )iow one 
la of battle engages? They go in In fine style, 
1 a good lino, and without any flinching; halt 
at what is held to be a desirable point, and, at the com- 
mand, commence firing, standing, lineeUng, or lying 
down, as may be ordered. Then, as in all their previous 
training they have been taught to load and fire as rapidly 
as posaiblo, three or four times a minute, they go into tbe 
business with all fury ; every man vying with his neigh- 
bor as to the number of cartridges he can ram into his 
piece, and spit out of it. The smoke arises in a minute or 
two, so you can see nothing where to aim. Tlio noise 
is deafening and confuang to the last degree, llie ira- 
preaaon gets around of a tremendous conflict going on. 
The trees in the Ticinifj snfler sorely, and the clouds a 
good deal. By and by the guns get heated, and won't go 
off, and tbe oartridge^ begin to give out. Tbe men hare 


become tired with their furious exertions, and the escite- 
raenc und din of their own firing, and without knowing 
any thing ahout the eflect produced upon the enemy, 
very likely having scarcely bad one glimpse of the enemy 
at all, begin to think they have fought ahout enough, and 
it ia nearly lime to retire. McanwTiile, the rebels, lying 
quietly a hundred or two yards in front, eroucliiug on the 
ground or behind trees, answer our fire very leisurely, as 
they get a chance for a good wn (about one shut to our 
three hundred), bitting about as many as we do, and wait- 
ing for the wild tornado of ammunition tio pass over their 
heads ; and, when our hurst of figbtiug is pretty much over, 
they have only commenced. They probably rise, and ad- 
, vanee upon uh with one of their unearthly yells, aa they 
eee our fire slackens. Our boys, finding that the enemy 
has survived such an avalanche of fire aa wo have rolled 
in upon bim, conclude bo must be invincible, and, being 
pretty much out of ammimition, retire. Now, if I had 
charge of a regiment or brigade, I'd put every man in 
the guard-house who could be proved to bavo fired more 
than twentj rounds in any one battle; I wouldn't let 
them carry more than their cartridge-box full (forty 
rounds), and have them understand that that was meant 
to last them pretty much through a campaign ; ond, in 
e -ery possible way, would endeavor to banish the Chinese 
style of fighting, with a big noise and smoke, and imitate, 
rather, the backwoods style of onr opponents. 


Whenever we choose to defeat the armies of the rebels, 
we can do so ; and we don't need five hundred thousand 
more men to do it with, either. There are men enough in 
Hooker's army now to march straight through to Blch- 
mond. .Too many men are only an encumbrance. There 
isn't the general living who has shown his ability to man- 
age properly, certainly, more than a hundred thousand 
men. All we have to do is to make up our minds not 
to run before an equal number of the enemy ; to keep cool, 
and save our ammunition to shoot something besides 
trees with ; and, when the Butternuts find we don't run 
away, they will. Meanwhile, till I'm able to return, and 
efifect in our army this change in their method of fighting, 
I have the honor to assure you that these brown-coated 
fellows are not so bad as they might be ; only they don't 
furnish us any sugar to put in our coffee, nor yet any 
coffee to put sugar in. 



I HAVE been among Italian brigands, and Greek pi- 
rates, and Bedouin Arabs; but,formakinga clean tiling 
of the I'cibbing business, comniend me to the Gonfcdorate 
States of America, bo styled. I'hej descend t« the minu- 
tiffl of the profession in a way that should be instructive to 
all novices in the art. Nothing is too small to escape 
their microscopic rapacity ; no article of appaiel ia sacred 
from their omnivorous clutches; no cmmb of provision 
but their acute olfactories will sraell it out. They ran- 
sacked our haversacks, and confiEcated the little rations of 
sugar WD happened to have therein as contraband of war. 
They stripped the canteens from the shoulders of the 
thirsty soldiers, and are sending tjiem off on a long march, 
to suffer no small inconvenience from this privation. 
They are taking away all our blankets, without which 
these cold nights will be almost insupportable till we can 
obtain a new supply. They picked our pockets of the few 
stray envelopes and sheets and half-s!ieets of wiiting-puper 
we chanced to possess. And this, be it understood, not 


as a precaution to prevent onr writing in prison : there is 
no regulation to prevent that, no prohibition of onr send- 
ing out and purchasing all the paper we wish. But it 
is just a specimen of the scale on which they conduct 

And, in another way, the official proceedings of this 
chivalrous Confederacy are just about as small. A system 
of petty annoyances, and oppression on the smallest possible 
scale, has been uniformly observed in reference to the 
Union prisoners in their hands. When they wished to 
remove the hundred or so Federal officers by rail from 
Guinney's Station to Richmond, they ordered us to pre- 
pare to move at three, p.m. ; kept us standing in ranks, in 
a pouring rain, for several hours; then marched us half a 
mile to the cars, and kept us waiting there, the rain still 
pouring furiously upon us, till half-past ten, p.m. ; when 
they marched us back to our flooded camps again, with 
orders to be in readiness at a moment's notice two or 
three hours hence, or any time during the night. Losing 
all our rest that night, and wandering about, forlorn and 
dripping, we heard nothing more of moving till the next 
P.M., about four o'clock; when we were put through the 
same process of waiting, and the second time kicked our 
heels about the station in the deep mud tiU seven or 
eight, P.M. ; when we were ordered back to camp again, 
but afterward did get aboard, and spend the night in the 
box cars (awfully duty) , although we did not move till 


the third clay, AH this, of coiirse, aa a more an- 
noyanco to us, and to make a display of their power, as 
no thin g eould be eiisier than to know when theie was a 
train for ti3. And of a piece with this is the order given 
to tho sentinels hero to prevent us from looking out of the 
windowa of the Libby, on pain of heing fired upon. In 
the same style is pretty much the wholo nf the Confederate 
behavior to us-ward. To be consistent to the end, they 
woke us about hall-past eleven laat night, and told us we 
should be paroled and marched for City Point at (liree, 
A.M. So no more sleep for that night. It is now one 
o'clook, P.M., and we have not started yet, and shall have 
lo march all night to-night to reach our destination. 

Our prison has proved a very comfortable one. A 
hundred of us officers Lave occupied a. room in the fourth 
Btory, a hundred and twenty feet by fifty, — a very clean, 
airy, and commodious apartment. Our ration haa been 
a half-loaf of good bread, and perhaps half a pound of 
bacon per man, — a pretty short allowance, but enough 
to sustain life ; and then we have been able to purchase 
occasionully a little sugar (a dollar and fifty cents per 
pound) , a, few eggs (two dollars and fifty cents per dozen) , 
or potatoes (at eighteen dollars a. bushel). I suspect we 
iCTist have created a panic in the market of these latter 
two articles, us tJiej have risen since wo came here from 
a dollar and fifty cents a dozen and twelve dollars a 
bu^l respectively. Of the city we have not seen a great 



L dea], aa yon ma; well suppose ; none of us having been 
I out of this room in the week of our stay. We have Been 
I ^qnite aa much as we wish fo, however, of the capital of 
rBeceseia, until we can enter it in quite anotlier style. 

P. S. — When about a hundred of ns had passed out 
of the room, the door was suddenly skmmed in our focea 
that were towurds the lust, and "No more go to-day" ut- 
tered in our surprised ears. We couldn't even send a 
lettei* or any word to our friends hy our comrades who 

I were the fortunate ones. I (and my letters to you^ remain 

I behind. 

Mil IB. 
a grejLt thing tfl livo in a great metropolia, even if 
t you have to look at it through a barred window ; "play 
[ eheckera with your nose through a grating," as the boys 
[ floll it. (There are no actual bars, however, on the win- 
[ dows of our apartment.) It is worth something to see the 
I m&lth of the nation watted on the white winga of com- 
, and Uii at the Confederate feet. (Two wood 
aacks and tive canal-boats, as well as one schooner par- 
y kden with lumber, and one httie thing that smoked 
\ aft, something like a steamer, have arrived during the week 
^of our stay.) It is worth Bomething to hear the losy 
1 of industry around us (a circular saw is running 
levcral hours a day within a few rods of ub, and a plan- 



u^mill semi-occaaonally ; three negro mule-drivers are 
flourishiDg their wood teama about the wharf, with a vast 
amount of eiuitement and bustle; and a suspender-factory 
is miming on fall time across tlie street) ; and it reaUy la 
a great sight, without any joking, to see the aira these 
rebels put on, and contrast the grandeur of their taJk with 
the evident ruin and wrelchedneaa of every thing around. 
One cannot bo within their lines for over so short a time, 
even in snch circumstanGea as ours, without an irre^tible 
feeUng that the socession bubble Li ou the point of borst- 
ing. I know we have talked this way so long, that it may 
seem ridiculous; but I do beheve, now more than ever, 
that we have ample power to put down this Bebellion nt- 
terly and permanently. It is only from our blunders that 
we have faOod to do it long ago. We cannot much longer 
help it, even with all our mismanagement ; for our euemieB 
are almost exhausted. The bear has nothing hut his own 
pawa to suck, and they are getting to be mighty poor 
nonriahment. The whole talk and actions, bluster, swag- 
ger, and rant, of tike high and mighty Confederal^, seem 
like the aoting of a tragedy. You can't make yourself be- 
lieve that it is earnest. You can't find the substance of it 
under the shadow. It is the most astonishing tbing in the 
world that the delusion has maintained itself so long as it 
has. If the Lord hadn't some great plan to work out 
in reference to the settlement of the question of slarery on 
dd have let the bubble be prioked 


long ago. He won't interpose his shield for the prof 
of this airy structure of iniquity much longer, we may Dti-' 
sure ; and, without that epcckl inlorposition whicli iho-^^ 
I*ord docs use to shield crimes till they arc fully ripe, il 
must drop. 

CiTT PoiKT, May 33. 

Slotalidng over the Eobellion, I fell asleep, and so left 
ray letter unfinished. I now add a word to tell you Hat 
1 am released, and on my way homo; that is, into oor 
lines. Indeed, the dear old flag now waves over na. 
Ahout a hundred and fifty officers, and four or five hun- 
dred privates, have jast come on board tie steamer " State 
of Blaine," paroled, not. I suppose, exchanged. We have 
had Col. Straight and his officers (who were captured by 
Col. Forrest near Rome, Ga.), and Capt. Brown and 
thirty officers of the "Indianola," with na in the Libby 
for a week past. We are right sorry to leave them behind, 
espociallyosCapt. Brown and hia naval ofSecrs have already 
had a painftd confinement of three months in Vieksburg 
and Jackson, We nnderstand that enough rebel officers 
wore brou^t up yesterday to entitle us to tiio discharge 
of all our officers in the Lihby. and that it ts by some 
breach of faith that a part of us are left behind. I hope 
that Major Ludlow will succeed in getting our fiienda 
to-day or to-morrow. 



Annapolis, May 28, 1863. 

DID you ever happen to read your own obituary 
notice in a newspaper ? Probably not ; and long 
may you be spared not to do so ! Serus in ccdum redeas. 
But and if, at last, the thing should happen to you, may 
you be there yourself, alive and well, to read it, as I read 
mine yesterday ! It is queer kind of reading, though, for 
a man. You read it rather hesitatingly, as if you might 
be intruding on words that were not meant for your ears. 
You run over it rather curiously, as wondering what sort 
of a news item your exit will make. You read it sadly 
and pityingly, as sympathizing with the thrill of sorrow 
that will pass through some loving hearts as the eye glances 
over the column. You read it with some sort of joy, 
as exulting in the consciousness that you are, nevertheless, 
alive on better authority than that of any newspaper in 
existence. You read it, on the whole, pretty seriously, and 
hang around it many thoughts and fancies, many questions 
and meditations, of that unknown existence in which the 
printer's type has temporarily plaoed you. You read it, 



I hope, with some feeling of devout gratitade to Him whose 
sparing hand hath made the notice for the present untme, 
and given you opportunity to fiinush material for a better 
one by and by. 

Grievo not then, veracious ^' Republican ! " that yom 
notice, in this one instance, was lacking in truth. That is i 
very conmiou faiibg in obituary itevas. Rejoice with your 
readers over this your rctoming (very) prodigal corre- 
spondent, who was dead, and is alive agmn ; who was loet 
in the wilderness alxmt Chancellorsville, wasted his living 
among the harpies and Jews of Seeesaa, was fein to eat 
the husks of the Libby Piison, and is very glad to be 
found again back in a region where iatted calves are not 
yet among the tilings that were. 

There could scarcely Ixj a more appropriate place for a 
man to read his obituary notices in ; for Annapolis is about 
the deadest old village m which it was ever my fortune 
to be buried; very pretty, indeed, but quaint, grotesque; 
every house minding its own business, and paying no atr 
tention at all to tho direction of the streets, or the situation 
and architecture of any of its neighbor dwellings. The 
State House, an interesting and venerable pile, in whose 
oosey Uttlo senato-cb amber, with its old-fashioned open fire- 
place, Gen. Washington resigned his commission, is the 
■ hub, out from which aU the streets of the httle city radiate 
like spokes of a wheel, and from the dome of which is 
one of the sweetest views my eyes ever rested upon. The 


buildings of the Naval Academy aronow(jcou])iedfQr hos- 
pital purposes; and pretty much all tlie other liousea in 
tho town — -a great proportion of wliicL, indeed, are board- 
ing-houses and hotels — are occupied by our Union offi- 
cers and soldiers who are staying here, paroled, awaiting 
exchange. Tlio shops arc kept, almost without exception, 
by Germans and Jews ; and all of them have just the same 
things exposed for sale, — dry-goods and hardware, groceries 
and provisions, ready-made clothing, boots, shoes, confec- 
tionery, stationery, jewelry, hats and caps, raUlinery, gun- 
powder, hoop-skirts, soap and candles, paints and oils, 
drugs and medicines, children's tnys, harnesses and trunks, 
oooking-stOTes, tinware, grindstones, &g., all in a mesa 
together. The "paroled" camp is about two miles 
from the State House, and a tolefably comfortable place ; 
but new barracks are immediately to be erected, clean, 
comfortidile, and airy, for tho more perfect aceommodatiou 
of tliose who may be oaUed hereafter to espericnoe a 
readence therein. May they lie few, and far between 1 

But I must give some feeble cipresaon of my sorrow 
— and that ef the whole circle of his brother officers and 
soldiers — in the tidings we have just received of tho 
death of Capt. I. R. Brenson of the 14th, sorely wounded 
in the fi^t near Chancellors ville, on Sabbath morning, 
May 3. He was. one of the most earnest, honest, and 
feailess patriots whose life has been saorificed in this 
great cause. Id camp, which is &r too often made an 

160 Dcyy browne in the army. 

excuse for relaxing the principles of morality and reli^on 
that are a restraint at home, he led a pnre and Christian 
life. WTicre profanity and obscenity are, I am forced to 
say, almost the rule, and decent language the exception, 
no impure or irreverent words came from his lips, nor, un- 
rcbuked, from those of his men. Of a courage that never 
left him satisfied to be away from his post when action and 
danger were before us, of an earnest patriotism that lefb 
none of us in doubt what were his motives in coming to 
the field, of an enduring fortitude that shrunk from no 
extremities of hardship and privation that came upon us, 
of a generous and cheerful spirit that was an example to 
us all, he was a soldier worthy of our cause, a patriot 
without a blemish, a Christian that did not dishonor the 
name, a comrade of whdfee loss I can scarely trust myself 
to speak. Since the death of the lamented Willard, of 
my own town and home, slain at Antietam, no stroke has 
come home to me, personally, so deeply. Noble Chris- 
tian soldiers both ! A tear to their memory, and a lesson 
to each of us from their lives. 



YOUR unfortunate coiTeapondcat finds himself re- 
stored lo lifo only to be killed over again, it Beema. 
Escaping from bis enemies, he has iallen among his fnends. 
Delivered from " The Richmond Dispatch " (which was 
only recently favoring his hempen suspension), he ia 
craahed under "ThePortland Press." That valuable down- 
East organ, taking umbrage at the humble sket*5hea and 
opmions of the undersigned touching the lalc Cbancellors- 
ville f(l)ight, haa just Beized its biggest pen, and, with 
one flourish, blotted him out. Your correspondent hasn't 
bad the fortune to Bee the article, in the above-mentioned 
" Press," whereby he haa come to his end (the victim very 
often doesn't see the bullet that kills him) ; but, from the 
accounts of a friend who did read it, the deed ia aeeoiD- . 
pliahed : the obituaiy-notioe recently published may as 
well Btjind for true, and there's no use in any more talking. 
There should be nothing more said by your (late) cor- 
respondent on the sulgect, save for one thing, — the attack 
which the "Press "article is said to have contained uponthe 
modegli/ of Mr. Dunn Browne. Now, as this is the one 


([uality that has always especially distinguished that indi- 
vidual; which has Iwen, so to speak, the crowning-grace of 
his tliaractcr (as all his friends can testify to have often 
heard from his own lips), — such a charge is enough to 
wake even a dead man long enough to add a protesting 
codicil to his " last speech and confession." 

The prisoner at the har, your honor and gentlemen of 
the jury, that is to say, of course, most Rhadamanthino 
editor and most impartial readers, is accuFcd of boasting 
of his own achievements, vaunting of the number of pris- 
onera that he took, &c., while disparaging the valor 
of our brave army, and calling that a defeat which was, in 
fact, a — a — a return to this side of the Rappahannock, 
as an easier place to sui)ply tlie soldiers with rations and 
such like. The pristmer huml)ly confesses that he did 
mention his picking up a few scattered butternuts, one or 
two at a time, whom his brigade, in their furious charge 
that Sabbatli morning, had kncK;kcd down and run over, 
or who had crei)t into their rear from the flank ; but ho 
respectfully submits that his object in mentioning the cir- 
cumstance was not particularly to sound his own praises, 
but to give a more vivid coloring to the relation of his own 
capture a few minutes later, by the striking contrast and 
the surprising disappointment of the captor all at once 
becoming captive. lie is free to acknowledge that a very 
strong motive for his exertions in capturing said rebels was 
his fear l?st the brown-coated rascals, if left behind, would 


fire at hiiu when he got ont of pistol-rango ; aiul, on the 
whole, he considers that there was more of the ludicroua 
than of the heroic in his porsonal odventurea on that day, 
ottltongh he ckims to have dooe his duty in it quiet, com- 
mon-sense way during the hour that it was his lot to he io 
the fight. 

As to the remarks of your con-espondont ia reference 
to the iesuo of the battle and the conduct of our Boldiers, 
and his comparison between their stylo of fighting and 
that of our enemies, he can only say that he used the very 
best of his judgment and observation, and information 
derived from a large number of officers and men from 
every part of the recent field of hattlo, as well as what 
Bsperience he has been able to pick up in something like a 
year's sorvico ; al! which together may or may not be so good 
a basis of an opinion na " The Portland Press " may havo 
at its disposal. Your correspondent expressly disavowed 
any disparagement of the courage of our soldiers, taken 
as a whole ; but te did beg leave to be escuaed from sing- 
ing paeans of praise to tlie valor and conduct of an array 
which had been driven back iiom a position of ifs own 
choosing, after time for considerable intrenehnient, by a 
vastly inferior force, worse ccinippcd, and infinitely inferior 
in all t^o annE, supplies, and munitions of war. lie did 
and does feel chagrined, after all our boasting that tf the 
enemy would only come out of his intrenchments and give 
MB a fiiir field, we would oak nothing iistter, and would 


make short work of him, that now, at last, when we had 
a field with the advantages nearly all on our side, we have 
made a grand failure and an inglorious retreat. Ho does 
feel, and thousands feel , with him, that worse than cap- 
ture, wounds, and imprisonment, worse than the jibes of 
our enemies, or the weariness of marches, or any of the 
hardships and privations that have been our lot, is the 
disgrac 3 of our army recrossing the Kappahannock ; and 
we do hope and pray for a speedy opportunity of wiping 
out that shame, and making it still possible to tell our 
children in future yeai's with pride, ** We also belonged to 
the Army of the Potomac/' As things are up to this 
time, your humble servant would take no special pains to 
impress that fact upon the minds of the little Brownes 
that shall come after him. 

The ** Press " has its privilege of making just as much 
better a story out of our doings as it possibly can (Grod 
knows the astounding disappointment of one heart; the 
reluctance, for a time the absolute refiisal, to accept as truth 
the news which it did hear, and finally was forced to believe). 
Your correspondent gives his account of what he sees, hears, 
and does in the great campaign, with as deep a conscious- 
ness of the imperfection of his narrative as the editor of the 
"Press" or any other man can have. A battle of two 
hundred thousand men is such a tremendous thing; such a 
mixed and confused thing ; such an exciting, tumultuous, 
smoking, and thundo ing thing ; such a haphazard, hamni- 


m, accidental mattfir; snch a lying and cheating, solf- 
glorJP^g, and eyerybody-elBe-condemning Lumbug of a 
Bahject, — that it is very difGcult l« get at the righta of it at 
all. Your eorrespondent can only giyc tbc imprceeions of 
one soldier, wbo is acting his own small part somewhere 
under the smoky cloud. He is glad lo beEere that they 
have a certain value, after making all duo allowances for 
their necessarily fragmentary cbaracler, because they are 
genuine, such as they are, — daguorrotypes, and not fancy 
aket^ihes. He doesn't see much, but what he does eee ho 
believes. He Boarcely expected that his sketches would 
be noticed so far away aa the melropolis of the down-East 
State. But if ho can afford any amnscmcnt to the editor 
of the "Press; "if his broken fragments can be shaken up 
in Bfud editor's kaleidoscope m such forma aa to pteaso the 
readers, — why, so much tho better, in these times, when 
there's so little to amuse anybody. 

Doubtless, dear "Eepublioan," this is aa much space as 
yon can afford to tho shado of a defunct correspondent. 
Tmsting that you wiU not suffer the "Press" to abiiBO his 
aahea, he ramaina Yours faithfully. 



Gainesville, Va., June 21. 

THERE is ono great advantage which the Confederate 
army has over us, and I do not know but it is suf- 
ficient of itself to account for our frequent ill success 
in contending with **our erring brethren." Whisky is 
sixty dollars a pint in Richmond ; while, in our camps, it 
can be obtained of our commissaries at ninety cents a 
gallon. Accordingly, there are five hundred and thirty- 
three and a fraction chances of any given soldier or officer 
in our ranks being found drunk, when his turn of duty 
comes, to one for a rebel officer or soldier. And I am 
sorry to say that there seems to be no want of disposition 
to avail ourselves of these odds in our favor. The rebels 
will drink all the whisky they can got, no doubt ; but the 
month's pay of a general wouldn't more than enable him 
to treat his staff once round, and the month's pay of a 
private would scarcely purchase him a smell at an empty 
rum-bottle. So they are sober in drink for the same good 
reason that they are temperate in eating, say in Vicksburg, 
at this present time. 

Really, though I have been long enough in the army 

not to be very easily overcome in my feelings, I am shocked 



at tliG progi'Css of inteniporanoe m onr army, more partto- 
nlarly among our officers. It is not often, indeed, that tbo 
mea eau olitMn any quantify of intoicicating beverages; and 
(he puniahment of tliosc wlio supply them in violation of 
orders is ftequently, at leaat, enforced. But thoro ia not, 
unfortunately, the same restraint upon the officera ; and 
Teiy many young men, who have been. Hlhcrto modola of 
flobriety, have, since coming to war, lost their gooil princi- 
ples, and are falling victims to this evil habit. It is getting 
to be held a duty of hoapitahty to offer something to drink 
to every brotherofficer who calls upon you. The public 
feeling of regiments is getting demoralized on this subject. 
Scarcely any of the general officers of the army fail to 
nse freely wines and liquors of all sorts. There are many 
whose mesa eipcnsoa for "fluids" greatly exceed those 
for Eolidfl. Not only are officers frequently in a state of 
intoxication when on duty, but such offensca againat mili- 
tary discipline are getting to be held in light esteem. 
Those who prefer such charges against men are held to bo 
officious meddlers. Even when convicted by courts-martial, 
the sentences ai'e very light. Officers are repeatedly re- 
tomed to duty who are known to be without any control 
over their appetites, ajid liable at any, no matter how 
toying, an omergoney, to bo found utterly unfit for duty. 
Men complain, and with good reason, that the very officers 
who put them under guard, and punish them in variona 
ways for drankeaneaa and noise in eamp, themselves offend 


mnch more grievonsly and ontrageoosly with comparadye 
impunity. I have heard a drunken officer lecture and 
swear at hi& men, an hour at a time, on their heinous offenses 
in the rum-drinking line ; but I doubt the efficacy of his 
lecture, although, to be sure, his words wore accompanied 
by a moral and a warning patent to their eyes. 

However, I almost feel that it is useless to say any 
thing about this matter ; for I am sure I scarcely know of 
any thing feasible to do to check the progress of the evil. 
Until the higher officers of the army begin to change their 
habits, and set a different example to their subordinates, it 
will be difficult to effect a reformation. As a king is, so is 
his court ; and every general is a sort of king, and the 
satellites revolving around him reflect his habits and 
opinions in the main. If the general swears, you may 
expect his staff and subordinate officers to swear also, and 
his orderlies and servants to fill their mouths with profanity, 
and the whole atmosphere about him to be blue with curs- 
ing and oaths. If the general drinks, his military family 
will adopt his habits in this particular also ; and, down to 
the very servant who blacks his boots, toddies and whiskies 
are the fashion. Still, doubtless much may be effected, by 
the earnest efforts of those who do see and deprecate this 
increasing evil, to produce a voluntary temperance in our 
army, which shall approximate, in some degree, the en- 
forced abstaniousness which is doing so much for the 

Fbedekiok CrtT, Md., June 23. 
I dunx I may have preyiouely somewhere remarked 
(any one in doiibt can easily ascertain by looliing over 
^oar files for a year poijt) tliat TMimmon ECoBe is a good, 
thing to have in a fiunily, or elsowhcro ; as, for instance, in 
military oporationa. Our corps and other commanders 
must have a largo accumulated stock on L'ind ; for mirely 
they waato precious little of the article in any of their 
movements. They manage most ingeniously to get the 
greatest posdble amount of exercise oat of their men in 
any given operation. They spare no pains to iosiirc to 
Dncle Sam the masimura worth of hia money ia labor, toil, 
and weariness from the $13-a-month-paId volunteer. They 
make every mUe the soldier marches fiiOy equivalent to 
three ; such is the perfection of military organization, suoh 
the tax to he ptud on — the luxury of being under or- 
ders. Shall I give you an instance, — one of the many 
that came under my own personal observation, " a part of 
which I was " ? Then I will speak of the way our divi- 
Hon got over a river. Problem : A division and its tmina 
to cross the Potomac. Means : A double pontoon-bridge. 
Time needful for doing it; Just about one hour. Way in 
wliieh the thing was militarily accomplirihed : Said divi- 
sion was encamped, after a day's march, near Edward's 
' Perry, on the southern aide. At nine, p.m., orders came to 
strike tents, pull up stakes, and move. We accordingly 


moved — about half a mile, and halted till nearly mid- 
night; then crossed over, and stood in the muddy road two 
or three hours waiting for orders to encamp. Finally, 
receiving orders, turned off into a large field of wheat 
just ready to cut, and bivouacked at four, a.m. At half-past 
six, A.M., received orders to evacuate the wheat-field, which 
was already destroyed, and Uncle Sam will have to pay 
for, and encamp in a grass-field a little distance away, 
which Uncle Sam will also have to pay for. Then, a little 
later, came the order to move on the day's march. So 
here was the hour's work accomplished in the course of 
the night by making thiee removes of camp, and at the 
trifling expense of a night's rest to the troops between two 
days' marches, and with the ultimate result of getting the 
same exhausted troops to Frederick City a day later than 
they were ordered and expected. 

But tbis isn't the worst of it. Such things vex and 
dishearten the men, and greatly damage the efficiency of 
the army ; for the impression gets abroad that the com- 
manders don't care for the comfort of the troops. They 
don't know where the fault lies, and blame all their 
officers, from the lowest to the highest. There is nothing 
more to be desired toward the efficiency of an army than 
a cordial understanding between the soldiers and officers ; 
a feeling, on the part of the men, that their comfort is 
cared for; that all are engaged in the same cause, and with 
the same motives, and ready to endure the same privations. 



"^UERE ia a deal of romance about this buMnesa of 
war. We lay ua down at night under heaven's 
glorious canopy, not knowing if at any moment the call to 
arras may not disturb our slumbers. We wako at riveiUe, 
cook and eat our scanty breakfast, thankftl if wo have any 
to dispose of in that way. At the bugloK3alI, we strike 
testa, put on our banioss and packs, and start off, not 
knowing our direction, lie object of our march, or its ea- 
tent ; taking every thing on trust, and enjoying as much 
as possible the varied experience of each passing honr ; 
and foody for a pic-nie or a fray, a bivouac, a skirmish, a 
picket, a rcconnoissance, or a movement in retreat. There 
is no life in which there is more room for the exercise of 
fidtb than in this some soldierly life of ours, — faith in 
onr own good right arms, and in the joint strength and 
confidence of military discipline ; faith in the oxpericnce 
and watchfulness of our tried commanders (happy if they 
be not tried and found wanting); faith in the ukimato sao- 
eesa of our country's good and holy cause ; fuitli in the 
overruling cure and protection of Almighty Jeliovah, who 


holdcth tho movements of armies and nations, as also tih0 
smallest concerns of private individuals, in his hand. 

Our marches for the last few days have been through 
tho most lovely country, across the State of Maryland to 
the east of Frederick City. There is not a finer cultivated 
scenery in the whole world, it seems to me ; and it was 
almost like getting to Paradise from — another place ; the 
getting-out of abominable, barren, ravaged Old Virginia, 
into fertile, smiling Maryland. It is a cruel thing to roll 
the terrible wave of war over such a scene of peace, 
plenty, and fruitfulness ; but it may be that here on our 
own soil, and in these last sacrifices and efforts, the great 
struggle for the salvation of our country and our Union 
may successfully terminate. Poor Old Virginia is so bare 
and desolate as to be only fit for a battle-ground ; but it 
seems that we must take our turn too*, in the Northern 
States, of invasion, and learn something of the practical 
meaning of war in our own peaceful communities. I sin- 
cerely hope that tho scare up in Pennsylvania isn't going 
to drive all the people's wits away, and prevent them 
from making a brave defense of homes, altars, and hearths. 
When I read in a paper, to-day, of the ** chief burgess " 
of York pushing out eight or ten miles into the country to 
find somebody to surrender the city to, I own to have en- 
tertained some doubts as to the worthiness and valor of 
that representative of the dignity of the city. It would be 
well for the citizens of Pennsylvania to remember that 


Leo's eoldjira are only men, after all, aod that tbeir num- 
ber is not absolutely limitless, and that they have not 
really the power of hoing in a great many places at the 
same time. Also, that, if they wish to enable the proper 
military authorities to defend them understand in gly, it 
will 1)0 just as well to see to the aoeuracy of the inform.ition 
they cany, and not magnify a half-dozen cavalrymen into 
a huge invading army. It is the very beat time in the 
world now for everybody to keep cool, and use a httle 
common Bense. When there isn't any danger near, it 
doesn't matter muoh about that. The simple truth is, 
that the enemy can not by any (lossibility, leaving many 
of his men behind to keep his long line of communica- 
tions open, carry into Pennsylvania any thing like the 
nnmljer of forces wo can bring t« meet him ; and it is only 
the circumstance of our being frightened to death at the 
audacity of his movement that can save Kim from repenting 
most ruefully the audacity of his crossing the Potnmac 
northward. Wo of the unfortunate "grand army," to 
be sure, haven't much reason to make large promises; but 
we ore going to pnt ourselves again in the way of thij 
Butternuts, and have great hopes of retrieving, on our own 
ground, our ill fortune in the last two engagements, and, 
by another and still more successful Antietam conflict, 
deserve well of our eoimtry. 

Oni troops aro making tremendous marches some of 
these days just past; and, if the enemy is anywhere, wa 


shall be likely to find him and feel of him pretty soon. For 
sixteen days we have been on the move, and endure the 
fatigues of the march well. There is much less straggling, 
and much less pillaging, than in any march of the troops 
that I have yet accompanied. Our men are now veterans, 
and acquainted with the ways and resources of campaign- 
ing. There are very few sick among us. The efi^cient 
strength, in proportion to our numbers, is vastly greater 
than when we were green volunteers. So the Potomac 
Army, reduced greatly in numbers as it has been by the 
expiration of the term of service of so many regiments, 
is still a very numerous and formidable army. An inno- 
cent **Dunker" (if you know that religious denomina- 
tion), at whose house we staid last night, thought that he 
had seen pretty much all the people of the world when a 
corps or two of our forces had passed his house. 

We passed, in our march up the Potomac, the field of 
the two Bull-Run battles ; and I was much shocked to find 
such great numbers of the bodies of Union soldiers lying 
still unburied. Their skeletons, with the tattered and de- 
caying uniforms still hanging upon them, lie in many parts 
of the last year's battle-field, in long ranks, just as they fell; 
and in one place, under a tree, was a whole circle of 
the remains of wounded soldiers, who had been evidently 
left to die under the shade to which they had crawled, 
some of them with bandages round their skeleton limbs, one 
with a battered canteen clasped in his skeleton hand, and 

some with evidence, aa our boys fancied, of having starved 
to death. On one old broken cart lies what if, left of eight 
Union soidicre, left to decay aa thoy wore laid to be 
borne off the field, and the vehicle struck, probably, by a 
eaanon-ball. In many instances, tho bodies which were 
partially or hastily bnried are now much uncovered ; and 
a grinning sknll meets your gazo as yon pass, or a flesh- 
lesa arm stretcbea ont its ghastly welcome. 

Still it is wonderful to notice how quickly and how 
kindly Nature covers up the traces of murderous conflict 
on her face. The scars are mostly healed, verdure 
reigns, and beauty smiles over the bloody field ; and save 
in a lonely chimney hero and there, and the ghastly sights 
I have above referred to, which result from human neg- 
lect and barbarity, and arc not to be charged at all to 
Nature, you would not suspect your feet wero pressing the 
soil that one year and two years ago was reddened in 
human gore. 

Enough of moralizing for the present, anil " a little 
more sleep and a little more slumber " for the heavy eye- 
lids of one who was in the saddle fifteen hours out of the 
last twenty-four, and expects to be as many more in the 
next twenty-four. No news except that which can be 
gathered from the date of this epistle. 



Battlb-Field, July 2, Twelve, x. 
I am sitting here under a noble oak, in a splendid cenr 
tral position, all ready to describe a battle to you ; but, 
somehow, it hangs fire. We have been waiting ever since 
five o'clock this morning, expecting every moment to go in ; 
but all is yet quiet, save the sharp skirmishing in our front. 
I am in a dilemma ; for, now that I have leisure to de- 
scribe, there is no battle going on to task my descriptive 
powers ; and, on the other hand, as soon as the battle com- 
mences to ^vo mc a theme, then I must take my share in 
it, and shall have no leisure to write. We are drawn 
up in a fine position, on elevated ground overlooking a 
valley and meadow. The enemy occupying, wc suppose, 
a somewhat similar position on the other side of said val- 
ley, say half a mile distant, we send a line of skirmish- 
ers down into the meadow among the grass and wheat 
fields. The enemy push out a rather stronger line from 
their position, and crowd our boys back. We put in 
a few more companies, and force them to a retrograde 
movement ; and so the line wavers to and fro. A very 
pretty sight to sec, but having things connected with it 
that are not at all pretty ; as, for instance, just this moment 
passmg, not ^yq rods distant, a captain borne on a stretcher, 
with a Minie-ball through his face, and, just back yonder, 
a corporal from our brigade, with a bad hole through his 
hand. A few minutes ago, away to our left, our line of 


Btirmisliera droTe (lie enemy so far, and Eoftirionslj, tliat I 
thought the buKmeaa was growing into tha inagnitudo of a 
batiJe ; but the firing ia dying away again now, and I 
think I see oar line retiring onpo more, looking in the 
diatance like littlo hiack dots in the wheat-field. We 
seem to be a little in doubt whether the enemy ia seeking 
to entice us into the valley to take us at a disadvaatage, 
or whether he is just withdrawing liimself entirely, and 
keeping tip the firing in a small way to cover his retreat. 

I incline to the latter opinion, and am much airaid we 
shall lose all our pains in iho recent twenty and thirty 
miles a day marching; much afraid that by the time we 
have lain here three or four days, waiting for Lee to como 
and attack us, wo shall learn that he is three days' march 
^ead of UB on the way to Old Virginia, with the jolly 
little pickings and stealings he has gleaned up in fat Penn- 
sylvania, and just crossing the Potomac with fifty thousand 
head of cattle and horses, and the reputation of having 
again eluded and bamboozled the grand Army of the Poto- 
mac. But as Gen. Meade has not asked me to ^vo him 
my viewa upon the present aspect of things, nor oven 
requested mo to take a brigado across to yonder grove and 
see what is in it, perhaps it will bo as well to wait the 
issae of events quietly. Very likely the Biittemuts will 
burst out upon us about sundown, af)«r the old Jackson 
style, with the heaviest kind of an attack, which will give 
sU of us aa much battle as we can msh fbr, no matter 


what our aspirations for military glory, and give me no 
opportunity to finish this epistle for some days, if ever. 
So I will just tell you the little I heard of the sharp fight of 
yesterday, and then lie down to sleep under this grand old 
oak till something else happens. 

We met the body of Gen. Reynolds as we were marchr 
ing up last night, and were told that he fought the whole 
force of the enemy, with one of his divisions, for two hours; 
exposing himself most gallantly, and soon falling, shot 
through the head. The rest of his corps, coming up, main- 
tained the fight, but with great loss, and were forced to 
retire before overwhelming numbers, until the arrival of 
three more of our corps, which put a new face upon afiairs. 
In the little time that remained before night, we regained 
a portion of the lost gi-ound, and captured a considerable 
number of prisoners, variously estimated at firom twelve 
hundred to two thousand ; and, last night and this morn- 
ing, the rest of us came up, and we are now, as I told 
you above, all in position, and as ready as we can be, I 
suppose, for an engagement. 

Tlie enemy, as your coiTCspondent has reason to know, 
in his complete and quite undcsired opportunity recently en- 
joyed for learning their views, are arrogant, and think they 
can easily conquer us with any thing like equal numbers. 
We hope that in this faith he will remain, and give us final 
and decisive battle here, and not put us under the neces- 
sity of more long marches and manoeuvering, and a longer 
suspense as to the result. 

OETTYHBUna. 185 

Fridat, July 3, Soven, A. u. 
Sure eoough, the enemy has shown us that ho had no 
dispodtlon to run away. At four, p.m., yestcrclBy, n tre- 
mendous cnononade was opciiyJ on us, and responded to 
with doiihie fury by our battcrias; and it strong rush was 
made on the kft of our semieircular position by tbo relsU, 
eoid at nearly the saiDo time (indeed, I don't know Imt 
before) on our estreme right; while a spirited skimiialiing 
WM kept Bp all along the lino, as woU as the most terrible 
utillery-Are that I have yet heard. It was as if iho iid 
of the infernal pit had been removed, and its horrid con- 
tents spilled over the upper world. The tremendous 
nptoor of hundreds of cannon ; the Horeeches and hisses 
of sheila tearing through the air, and bursting over our 
heads, and burying tiiemselves in the earth at our feet ; 
the sharp crack of musketry, and whirring of bullets ; the 
sulphurous cauopy of smoke that soon darkened the air, 
and uiude all things Him around us ; the rapid movements 
of troops, flying hither and thither to take up new po^ 
tions, — constituted altogether such a acene of excitement 
and confusion and grandeur and horror, as nothing but 
the simile of hell broken loose is at all adeq^uato to describe. 
The murderous conflict continued until half-past fen last 
night, and ceased then with the repulse of the enemy &om 
evety point of our position ; although, at oue or two vital 
points, the issue was several times doubtful. 
It has been, up to this time, a right noble and well- 


fought battle ; the eilemy attackmg fiercely, and our forces 
bravely meeting the shock ; no flinching, no cowardice, any- 
where, so far as I have heard. I heard one say, indeed, that 
the third corps, or a part of it, gave way once on our 
left, and had to be replaced by the gallant fifUi ; and it 
occurred to the brigade with which I am connected to 
move from the centre towards our right, just in the nick 
of time to save a couple of batteries that were being 
fiercely charged by Early's division, and a vitally impor- 
tant position that had just been abandoned by a portion 
of our eleventh corps. But even these fellows that gave way 
had fought well, and held their ground some hours ; and 
the eleventh, as a corps, have done tolerably well, I under- 
stand. So I trust in God the Army of the Potomac is 
going to redeem its reputation in this battle, and yet 
deserve nobly of a rescued and grateful country. 

Ten O'CLOCK, a.m. 
A most obstinate and fiercely contested battle has been 
going on since four o'clock this a.m. on our extreme right, 
— six hours of as hot work as the history of battles can 
tell, and the business still going on as briskly as ever. We 
can not sec yet that either side has a decided advantage. 
Two divisions of the twelfth corps have just held Ewell's 
corps at bay for seven hours, and now (for I have been 
hindered by several errands, and it is now twelve, m.) 
have driven him back with heavy loss ; and a great many 


demoralized Bfragglora we can see in the distance. At this 
moment we bear distant guns, and take it to be Concb's 
advance. So, between us, I think tbe rebs will rue the 
day thej came into Ponnsjlvanla, and get back over the ■ 
Potflmao in a good deal worse shape than af1:er Antietam. 
I can give yon no estimate of the losses. Our brigade 
captured a stand of colors, three field-ofScers, and abont 
fifty privates, last night. The fighting is not done yet by a 
good deal, we espect ; but we hope for the best, and for 
a glorious Fourth to-morrow- Hastily, 

Dunn Bkowne. 

I have at last had the desired opportunity of seeing a 
battle in whloh there was real fighting; bard, persistent, 
desperate fighting ; fighting worthy of a noble cause 
and the confidence of a gallant people, and of the glorious 
anniversary that is upon UH. Whatever the ultimata issue 
of this series of battles (and I am sure I can not see how 
it can be any thing but the total destruction of Lee's 
army), the dear old, bravo, nnfortunato Army of the Po- 
tomac has redeemed its reputation and covered itself with 
glory in this day's work. After a lull in the fury of the 
contest for a couple of hours or so succeeding the obstinate 
engagement on our right in the morning, the cannonade 
noommenced, with unesampled fiity, a little after noon, 

188 ucyy browxe in tue army, 

— such a cannonade as, I believe, no battle of this war has 
yet begun to c«.»inparc with, — and after ra^g about an 
hour, and doing fearful havoc, especially upon our bair 
tcrios, hundreds of whose horses were killed, also pieces 
dismounted, caissons exploded, and, in several instances, 
whole batteries silenced, the enemy advanced for a despe- 
rate attack upon our left and center, evidently hoping that 
our batteries were so knocked to pieces, tliat they conld 
not retard their advance. But our reserve batteries had 
replaced all the disabled ones ; our line of infentiy, mostly 
behind a low stone fence, just lay low, kept cool, and 
poured death into the ranks of the advancing foe ; while 
grape and canister from a hundred huge brass months 
swept them down as hail does the growing grain, tiU 
human courage could no longer stand against such a tem- 
pest of lead and iron : their steady lines wavered, rallied, 
quailed again, and began to break and flee. This was 
our time. With a tremendous shout, catching from re^- 
ment to regiment along our line, our boys sprang up over 
the fence and down the slope upon the wavering enemy, 
with a rush that nothing could withstand. The enemy 
fled, throwing away every thing. We captured thousands 
of prisoners, — among them two generals, scores of colors, 
and arms of all descriptions without number, — and re- 
turned to our old position ; for their long line of batteries, 
most formidable and well served, covered their retreating 
columns, and checked our pursuit, which was not organized 


and regular, but fi sort of Bpontaneons impulfle of our boys 
whoQ the enemy began to waver. 

So has tho enemy been docifiively repulsed m every 
attack he has made upon us, and, I think, will scarcely try 
that perfonnance again. Ours i,s now to attack him, to 
follow up our success with unfliuchuig energy, ^va him 
not a moment's rest, and use him up entii'ely bcforo he 
reaches the Potomac, or else chase him through- Vii'pnia 
to Richmond, and close up the Kehellion at it.') great center, 
while Grant and Banks gather in Vickshurg and Port 
Hudson, and our iron-cMs knock to pieces the defenaea 
of Charleston, 

All our re^ments have done nobly. Be it my glad 
privilege to spealc first of the one in which I am most in- 
tcTceted, though my position was temporarily elsewhere on 
the field. The 14th Connecticut, under the command of 
Major EUis, in the field now less tliaa a year, and reduced 
&om a thousand strong to about two hundred efiectivo 
men by the losses of marching and sickness, and pailidpar 
tion in the three great battles of Anlietam, Frederioka- 
burg, and Chancelloraville, can claim, at least, an equal 
eharo with any reg^eut in the field of the glorions 3d 
of tTuly at Gettysburg. Ila position was in the center of 
the enemy's advance, and nowhere did the heaps of rebel 
dead lie thicker than in its front. Three regimental battle- 
Bags are trophies of our boys' prowess, prisoners to just 
■.bout tlie number of a man apieoe, one colonel, one lieu- 


tcnant-coloncl, a good many other officers, and something 
like a hundred privates. Hurrah for the gallant old 14th! 
She is getting some pay for Fredericksburg and Chancel- 
lorsville. In the brigade to which I am attached for the 
present, the 8th Ohio had an especial share of glory in 
this last conflict. Three battle-flags are also this regi- 
ment's trophies ; and, from their advanced position in sup- 
port of the line of skirmishers, the prisoners they took 
were probably ten times the number of their own men. 
One private came in a few minutes aft^r the battle with a 
captain, three lieutenants, and thirty privates. But time 
presses, and I yield to the pressure. 

July 4, six, a.m. — The pickets of our brigade have just 
entered the town of Gettysburg, and report the rebel column 
just out of the town, and in full retreat. The prisoners 
are coming in rapidly. Two squads of about a hundred 
apiece have just now passed me. Oh for a glorious Fourth- 
of-July celebration ! not in speeches, fire-crackers, and the 
noise of unshotted cannon, but in earnest, energetic action 
in pursuing these defeated enemies ; in the stem speech of 
shotted cannon and musketry, thinning the ranks of our 
haughty invaders, and pushing their columns, torn and 
bleeding, back to utter rout and destruction. Our rations 
are out. For a day or two past, we have had little to live 
upon. I haven't tasted coffee for now the third day \ but 
I understand there are crackers and pork up this morning, 



to give to our boys a scanty supply : and I trust we shall 
immediately push forward, and do the hurrahing and the 
feasting by and by. Excuse the haste and unconnected- 
ness and illegibility of this communication. 

Hurrah for the Union, and down with the rebels I 


Battle-Field near Gbtttsbubo. 

IPRESIBIE you may have half a dozen accounts of tlie 
campaign in Pennsylvania before this : but, as my opin- 
ion of the battle of Chancellorsville was called in question 
by some of my friends, I wish to say through your col- 
umns, that, in my humble opinion, the battle of Gettysburg 
yesterday and the day before was not at all like that of 
Chancellorsville, but has been a clean, well-conducted, 
hard-fought, and every way glorious fight, in which the 
Army of the Potomac has redeemed its reputation, and 
deserved well of the country; or if my opinion was wrong, 
and we did fight well at Chancellorsville, this has been 
a battle in which the said army has eclipsed its former 
glories, and given the country reason to be glad and grate- 
ful to God on this our national anniversary. 

The arrangements of the action were admirable, the exe- 
cution almost perfect, and the conduct of the troops most 
creditable. I, of course, can speak more particularly of 
our own glorious old fighting division, the third of the 
second corps, which has again crowned itself with glory. 
The 14th Connecticut, in whose welfare nearly every por- 
tion of the State is interested, had a splendid opportunity, 


being in the very cantor of the lino attacked on the aftei- 
nooa of the 3(1 instant ; and never was an opportunity better 
improved. Although my own logiment, I can speak with 
comparative impartiali^ of its doinga, because nij duty on 
detached Bervice at present called me away to another 
part of the field. I had occasion to view the whole length 
of our lines, to ride over every part of the field ; and in no 
part of the whole line was there evidence of harder fightr 
ing or a more gaUant charge. Five regimental battle-flagB 
are the trophies of its valor, aa well as about a prisoner for 
each man engaged. It was a grand sight to see in this 
portiou of the battle the charge made by the rebels, and the 
vtcy it was met. The most terrific camtouade of the war 
commenced at about one o'clock, and continued, perhaps. 
about three-quarters of an hour, followed by tie impetuous 
attack of their infantry upon our left and center. 

In three magnificent lines of battle, preceded by a line 
of Bkirmiahers, the rebels charged across the valley and 
up the slope, at the crest of which our single line of 
troops lay behind a stone fence ready to receive them. In 
most gallant stylo they came on. I don't believe troops 
ever made a drmcr or more persistent charge under such 
a murderous fire. But it was too much for human valor 
to accomplish. It was just a reversal of the work at 
Fredericksburg. Here the attack was on the outside of 
the circle ; and at Fredericksburg our attack was on the 
inner, and they could concentrate their fira upon us. 


Our batteries mowed down their ranks with grape and 
canister, and our continual and terrible musketry-fire cut 
them all to pieces. Their lines wavered, re-formed, closed 
up as the men fell, rallied many times, and pressed for- 
ward, but finally were compelled to fall back. I under- 
stand that a few of them reached the top of the hill, and 
almost gained possession of one of our batteries, an offi- 
cer mounting one of our pieces, and waving his sword as 
he fell ; when our boys sprang up, and charged down the 
hill with a tremendous shout, and a rush that could not be 
resisted. Soon began to come in troops of prisoners ; and 
the contest was over, and the enemy repulsed along the 
whole line. 

This was only one part of the battle. A contest still 
more obstinate if possible, at least much longer continued, 
took place on our extreme right, on the morning of the 
3d. From four, a.m., till ten, two divisions of the twelfth 
corps resisted and finally repulsed the attack of Gen. 
Ewell's corps (formerly Jackson's) ; and on the 2d 
also, from four, p.m., till nearly eleven, the battle raged on 
the right and on the left with the greatest ferocity. It 
was in this fight of Thursday night that Gen. Carroll's 
brigade, of the third division of the second corps (to 
whose stajff I am at present attuched), came to the support 
of two batteries of the eleventh corps in the very nick of 
time, when their infantry supports were on the verge 
of yielding and the rebels were already among the guns, 

and the artilleriatB defending themselves with theii'apoDge- 
BtaSa. We killed fifty rebels insido of our Udo of slono 
fence, and retook the poeitioa lost !□ the dark (aboat 
eight, P.M.), and, amidst a perfect tempest of shell and 
bullets, Baved the batlerie?, and held the position ; which 
if the enemy had occupied, and turned the guns upon us, 
would have lost us our whole position, probably, and 
turned the fate of the day. 

Our general (he is ouly u. colonel commanding, al- 
though a graduate of West Point, and acting brigadier 
for more than a year) ,* in the darkness and confusion, on 
unknown ground, and amiilst a terrible fire, moved with 
perfect coolnese, made hie voice heard aboye the whole up- 
roar, disposed his men with as mnch skill as if on familiar 
ground and in open day, and showed himself, as he always 
does, a thorough soldier, and au unsurpassed commander 
of men. It would have done your heart good to hear the 
artillerists cheer when they heard that it was Carroll's 
brigade that was coming to their rescue. The brave fel- 
lows, with tears in their eyes at the thought that they 
jooBt lose their beloved guns, Bhouted to each other, "It's 
Carroll's brigade I There'll he no more running. We're 
Bale !" Yet men have been promoted over bis head time 
and again, who have neither experience nor brains nor 

• After Gen. Gmnt took oomtnnnrl of tlie «rniv. Gen. Cniroll wm 
promoted, first t< Iho i ink of brigadier, and floon to that of major- 


coolness nor courage. His name has Deen sent in for a 
generalship two or three times, but not confirmed, for 
want of political influence in his favor. I say these things 
in bare justice to a most accomplished soldier and skillfbl 
leader, in a time when the country greatly needs such to 
serve her in high places, and not firom any reasons arising 
from my personal connection with him, which is only an 
accidental and temporary one. He has no Connecticut 
regiment under him ; but his adjutant-general is one of 
our Connecticut boys, and a credit to his native State for 
his gallantry and two years' valuable service in the war. 
His name, mentioned honorably in several official reports, 
is John G. Reed, captain, son of Rev. Pr. A. Reed of 
Salisbury, Conn. He bad his horse shot under him 
in the Thursday-night engagement, — the familiar gmj 
stallion that the boys liked to see moving along their 
lines (but whose heels it wasn't always safe to approach), 
as cool under fire as his rider. 

But I must close my rambling and inadequate sketch 
of these eventful days by saying that we are having a 
happy and glorious Independence Day, and look forwai-d 
with great confidence and hope to the utter rout and ruin 
of Lee's army. 

I can not tell you of the particular doings of other 
Connecticut regiments, but know that all have acted an 
honorable part, and deserve well of the country. 

Our loss in generals has been very great. Gens. 


Reynolds, Weed, and Zook, killed; Sickles, Hancock, 
Gibbon, Paul, Vincent, Barstow, and others, wounded. 

Three brave boys in the Madison company, of the 14th 
Begiment, have given their lives toward obtaining this 
glorious success, — Moses G. Clement, Willie Marsh, and 
Aaron Clark : the two first, in the final charge down the 
hill upon the enemy ; the last, in the original position on 
the crest of the hill, — all brave soldiers, and a loss to 
the community and circles of mourning friends. 


Battle-Fdeld neab Gktttsbubo, ) 
Six, A.M., July 6. ) 

I SENT yon yesterday a couple of letters giying a 
partial account of our glorious contests and yictories 
of July 2 and 3. Yesterday I expected to enjoy as 
the most glorious anniversary of its national independence 
the country ever saw : but it proved to be the most anx- 
ious and finally miserable day I ever spent ; for we did 
absolutely nothing! — lay here through the whole day 
utterly inactive, — and now I have scarcely a doubt the 
enemy has taken himself away from us. Gen. Meade 
has shown such skill and ability hitherto, that we are all 
inclined to trust him to the uttermost ; but how can it be 
that he has not lost the most glorious opportunity of the 
whole war ? We had repulsed the enemy most decisively 
and tremendously along our whole line. The men uni- 
versally were eager, anxious, panting, to be led on to- com- 
plete the triumph, and utterly crush the defeated and 
despairing enemy. This spirit in the troops I know, for 
I had occasion to be along every part of our line during 
the day ; and one could not mistake the whole import of 
their words, looks, gestures. They were like hounds in 



tlie leash, pantJng to be let loose. And then it was Inde- 
pendence Daj ! Good heavens ! we conld not bo de- 
feated that (lay. I would stake ray life a thousand times 
over on (he issue. It was the surest tiling that any leader 
ever held in his hands. I wouldn't have so insulted oar 
gallant army, and the inspiration of the blessod Fourth of 
July, as to have been in doubt, for a moment, of iho vic- 
tory, no matter how obstinate a defense the Eallen foe 
might have made ; and the whole army would have gone 
forward with a sahlime confidence that all Bcboldom in 
arms could not have resisted. 

I know Gen. Meade is the one who has disposed the 
troops and guided them to victory, and whose opinion 
is worth a thouaand times more than mine : and that he is 
ahnoat certainly right, and I wrong: but, if that were a 
dead certainty (yesterday being the Fourth of July), I 
wouldn't give u]i my opinion. lie may be uU right, and 
the result show it gloriously; hut I can't be wrong in 
thinking as I do. Even if he doesn't let a remnant of 
the army of Leo get back across the Potomac, I shall still 
contend that the work of annihilation were better done 
yesterday. However, yesteiday has gone by, like the 
day aft«r Aniietam, only a hundreil times more so; and 
we have only to-day in our hands. I don't see how Lea 
is going to estrieate himself from his position without tre- 
mendous lose, nor how we can well help pretty nearly or 
quite annihilating him, if we follow vigorously, but o&ti- 


tionsly, nnder Meade's able superintendence, his retreating 
columns; pressing constantly upon him, and harassing 
him with cavalry. 

Perhaps, indeed, he hasn't yet retreated at all. On 

our left, our troops were digging rifle-pits and construct- 


ing defenses yesterday, as if still expecting an attack; 
but the indications are all the other way. The pickets of 
our brigade, and a part of the eleventh corps, advanced 
before light, yesterday morning, as far as the village, and 
took a good many stragglers, and brought in a great num- 
ber of our own wounded left behind by the enemy, whom 
they reported departing by the Cashtown Road as they 
entered. Lee's skirmishers, to be sure, kept up a lively 
firing all along our left ; but he would, of course, do that 
to cover the signs of his departure : and now, this morn- 
ing, we learn that his artillery has been moving all night ; 
and I suppose there is scarcely a shadow of doubt the old 
fox is gone. I see no indications of our moving yet. 
Yours, disappointed, but still hopeful. 

Five Miles from Gettysburg, July 6. 

In an account of one of our recent engagements, in a 
newspaper that strayed into our camp, I noticed that the 
musketry firing was stated to have been the most terrific 
that the writer ever saw; and then, a few sentences 
after, that the contest described was the first battle in 
which he had ever been concerned. It occurred to me, 


that, conEideHog the lasC-mentionccI fact, the fir^t etata- 
ment waa not very strange. Now. there is doubtleea 
a tendency tfl make every battle described u very grand 
affair ; and if all the ' ' probably most desperate and Woody 
engagemonta of this war" were gathered together, and 
counted up, their number would bo dozens or scores ; and 
we have had no small number of "battles that have 
DO parallel in history." Now, I alwaya mako a little 
allowance for descriptions of this kind, and discount some- 
what on the strength of the American characteristic of 
hyperbole ; and having seen the broken hits of ironmon- 
gery that woro scattered in and about Sebastopol, over a 
oirclc of many miles in diameter, consisting in part of tea 
or twelve inch aoUd shot, and fragments of tliirty-ais-inch 
shell, t should scarcely dare to speak of even a very lively 
esplosion of field-pieces as the most "terrific cannonade 
the world ever heard." Still, in a!l moderation, this last, 
affair of ours with Lee at Gettysburg ean bo spoken of as 
a big thing; and the cannonading, about seventy-five 
peces (in each side, throwing, say, at, two hundred 
shot or shell per minute, and continuing for an hour or 
two at a time ia fiill blast, though hardly to bo compared 
ta the bombardment of Scbastopol, or even some of the 
engagemeuts iu which naval and siege guns have been 
brought to bear ia our own war, yet waa sufficiently ex- 
dlJng and awful for all practical purposes ; and one who 
was in the midst of it would hardly wish for another hun- 


dred a minute for tbe sake of adding to the grandeur of 
the scene. 

It was touching to see the little birds, all out of their 
wits with fright, flying wildly about amidst the tor- 
nado of terrible missiles, and uttering strange notes of 
distress ; it was touching to see innocent cows and calves, 
feeding in the fields, torn in pieces by the shells ; it was 
still more touching to see the artillery horses standing 
quietly in their places, veteran warriors, cool and uncon- 
cerned in the most terrific fire, and falling in death with- 
out flinching any more than their brave human compan- 
ions. Several batteries had thirty or forty horses each 
killed in one day's engagement. It was a nobler sight to 
see the sublime bravery of our gallant artillerists, serving 
their guns with the utmost precision and coolness, right 
in the focus of the most terrific storm of shells and mus- 
ketry, knowing they were the mark aimed at by an 
equally brave and skillful enemy, and clinging to their 
beloved pieces to the bitter end. We found the boys of 
some of the batteries we rushed in to save, when a part 
of the, eleventh corps gave way on Thursday night, just 
standing among their guns, beating over the head with 
their rammers alike the enemy who were rushing in to 
capture their pieces and the cowardly Dutchmen who 
were running away fi-om their defense. All honor to the 
gallant battery-boys who so well sustained the honor of 
the flag in those soul-trying hours I It was a sight of 


lur butteriea held when the 
ind limhs of mangled men 
and horses; hroken wheels and carriages; dismoHnled guns 
and exploded caissons; timbers dashed to pieces; the 
bmnches, and oven trunks, of fallen trees, cut down hy 
tlia shot; and tlie plowed-up earth ; and shot and shells 
scattered over the ground, — all made a picture for a paint- 
er, but one horrible to look upon in its actual reality. 

It has been a great battle ; probably not much inferior 
in magDitude and carnage to Waterloo itself, though, of 
course, not to he compared with it in the vitality and 
decisiveness of its issue. We probably have other battles 
to fight before the enemy is utterly routed, and drivea 
back across the Potomac. It has been a plain, open, visi' 
ble battle, in which we could understand what was doing 
and what was attempted; know the object, and witaessthe 
success, of every movemeat. All wasn't confusion and 
chance ; hut almost every roan engaged could see what 
was expected of him, and know how to caleulate his re- 
sources. We boast of the Amcriaan soldier as superior to 
the pure military machine of the European deajiot, for 
the very reason that lus education is superior, and his 
feeling of jierGonal independence and manliness stronger. 
If we wish to make the most of this superioiity, then, wo 
must fight the American soldier intelhgently, — let him 
know whut he is expected to aocomplisb, and give him 
Bome knowledge of the general plan and object of lie bat- 


tie he is fighting. Here is jast where onr leaders have so 
often failed : thoj have treated the soldier as a machine, 
and so a machine he has hecome. Treat our brave boys 
as men : they are and will be men. 

We lost the opportunity of the Fourth, the most glorious 
opportunity a general or an army ever had : but we are 
being moved now with great skill and judgment to the 
execution of another plan, which promises great and victo- 
rious results, if one may be allowed to guess from the 
direction we are taking; and we wait with hope and good 
courage for the issue of our next battle. 



JnLr 13. 

"I T'S queer that soareely anybody can give a correct 
-*- acGount of a battle. No, it ian't queer, eitLer; for 
no man can see more than u small part of a great Iwittle 
at once, and each one wishca to inuke his share as con- 
spicuoua as possible, and pruiae his own corps or division 
to the utmost ; and things are so confused ut best, that it 
would be more strange that a man should, than that he 
shouldn't, ^ve an accurate account of the whole matter. 
But the late battle of Gettysburg wiia such a comparatively 
plain and simple and eaaiy oomprehondod affair, that 
I should (mpposti the main purport of it might be 
rightly put. But I have seen all sorts of incorrect state- 
ments of it in the papers every day since the battle ; sncli 
as, " We have attacked the enemy in his own chosea 
position, and swept him from the field." " After a most 
obstinate and bloody contest, the enemy gave way, and 
left us the p<asesaion of nearly the whole ground.'' Now, 
the simple aljite of the facta is just this, — that we repulsed 
the attacks of the enemy, repulsed them tremendously 
and efectually ; and in tiia was our victory. It was 


Fredericksburg over again, with the opponents in re^ 
versed positions. The first dxy (Wednesday, July 1), we 
were advancing, indeed, and may be said to have at- 
tacked the enemy : but his numbers were overwhelming, 
and we were driven back a mile or two, quite through the 
village, and this side of it, to a strong position, whose 
front was Cemetery Hill ; and the contested ground and 
our wounded, and large numbers of prisoners, were left in 
poascssion of the enemy. And the battles of Thursday 
and Friday were, with some small exceptions and divei^ 
sions, attacks of the enemy on our own ground, a strong, 
elevated position, sometimes at one point, and sometimes 
at another, but always without success. Our position 
was almost in the form of a horseshoe ; so that we could 
re-enforce any attacked point with the greatest celerity. 
The enemy, to move from his right to his left, must march 
a circuit of six or eight miles. When he had been all 
day, or all night, massing his forces to the right or to the 
left for an attack, we could, in a few minutes, bring our 
troops across the neck of the horseshoe to help one another, 
and repulse him. Then our whole line was on the crest 
of a hill (or range of them), and behind strong stone 
fences, except around to our left, where the ground sloped 
down to nearly a level ; but we had three batteries on a 
hill, which swept the whole front of our lines with an en- 
filading or flank fire. So we were in as strong a position 
almost as we could have ; and in the battles of the 2d and 


a the rebels came np the hiU to stonn onr position, 
e tbcin dowD tbc bill again witb tromondous loss, 
and beld our own poaitioti, wbile tfaey retired to theira. 
Our bojs sallied out a little wny to pick up and bring in 

, lie prisoners and tie wounded ; but we retained our posi- 
tion, and the rebels retained their original position. There 
was no advance of our lines in any part of tbe field, that 
I am aware of. 

If, early on the 4th, wo had advanced on the broken 
and dispirited enemy, and attacked him with the same 
valor witb which he had attacked us, which wag what our 
boya were cspeeting and longing for, I doubt not we 
should have utterly routed and ruined Lee's whole army ; 
but it may prove that what we have done is for the best : 
we are aU disposed to place the utmost confidence in the 
skill and prudence of our leader. D. H. Hill, and his 
troops from North Carolina, are said to have joined Lee : 
BO, if wo defeat and destroy the rebels bore on tbe Potoraae 
now, it will bo a bigger defeat and destruction than if it 
had been Lee alone on the 4th. Thid is a point to be 
(wnsidered, no doubt. Perhaps, if we wait a little while 
longer, Beauregard's army may be up also, still further 

L^Mparease tbc niagnitade of our victory. 

^^^^^ lUE OEItUAKS. 

I Our boys come back out of Pennsylvania with no very 
exalted opinion of the German inhabitants of that portion 


DUKN BROWim nr tbe asmt. 

, ot the State we visited, or of tbe Scrman regiments in oui 
■imy of defeodGra. The people Eeem to be utterly 
■pathetic aa to our great iia.tional struggle, and careless 
I of every thing but tbeir own property. If each old iar- 
I mcr'B henroost and cabbage-patch could only be aife, little 
I TTOuld he care for the fate of the country, or the auocefls 
: anny. The German regiments, mostly in the 
eleventh corps, bad an oscellont opportunity to redeem 
tbeir eoldierly reputation, lost, or at least greatly injured, 
at Chancellors villo. I am sorry to know that this waa 
only partially accomplished. Many of the regiments in 
that corps behaved splendidly (I saw the 17tb Connecd- 
I ont and 33d Massachusetts standing their ground most 
Oanfully in a trying position, the other regiments around 
them running like sheep) ; hut very many just broke and 
ran ehamefully ; their offlcera could not control them in 
tbe least, and acknowledged, in my bearing. — officers not 
u rank either, — that they could- not get tbeir men into 
[ position behind their stone fence, even after the firing had 
I saw some of these regiments, when we were 
under the tremendous shelling of Friday, with the ene- 
my's guns.OQ both sides of us, as a shell came from one 
direction, spring over the fence to tbe opposite side, and 
then hop back again to their original position as a shot 
oame fruiti an opposite l>att«ry ; and then, too, groups of 
1 time starting up to run to the rear, 
11 one part of the line was left nearly defenseless, while 



not an oncmy was yet in sight in our front. Still, the 
Germans, mixed in with our Yankee regimenta, make 
some of our very best soldiers : I Devor want better or 
braver men than many of those I have had in my own 
commands. One German sergeant in a regiment of our 
brigade, in the hito battle, took two of tho oneray's colors 
with his own hand. But, aa it is, the reputation of the 
eleventh corps is at a low ebb with their brother^oldiera 
in the Potomac Army ; and very undoservedly, too, to the 
many brave regiments who have always done their duty, 
but have eufiered &om the ill conduct and want of support 
of those by their side. 

Bid I toll you what a sad soono of desolation and dese- 
cration the beautiM cemetery at Gettysburg presented 
after the terrific camionade of the 3d ? what, with its 
broken and upturned monuments, and shattered railings 
and ornamental work ? what, with ite mangled carcasses of 
horses and men, broken guu-corriages and caissons, and 
eolid shot and bursted shell over all the ground ? If 1 
did not tell you, on second thought I will not ; for a 
ai|^t tliat Z am trying to forget out of my own mind en- 
tirely I will not seek to impress upon other people's 

I have not said a word about the thing you are most 
interested of all to bear, — that is, what we are now doing 
Lere on lie banks of the Potoroac, — because I don't want 
to commit myself, and doa't exactly know what are our 



plans. I judge we have the enemy pretty effectually Bor- 
roundcd so far as this side of the river is concerned. I 
hope we are sending a force up the other side to cut him 
off, and destroy his trains in Yirginia, and then we can 
afford to wait, and let him attack us, storm, or surrender, 
whichever pleasant alternative he may choose. But, not 
- being sure that we are getting a force up between him and 
Eichmond, I fear we may wake up some £uie moming, 
when the Potomac subsides a little, to £uid ourselves closely 
investing the place where he was ! It is still raining, and 
the river is high ; Providence favoring us beyond what we 
had any reason to hope in that respect. We are in good 
spirits, and full of hope. Wait ! 

WiLLiAHSPOBT, Md., July 14. 
There is a beautiful door up here, open, and with the 
appearance of having been passed through lately; a 
very fine road, with tracks in it, leading away from us ; 
a fine fox-hole, but no fox in it. We made a very skillful 
and cautious approach, and found, after a few days, that we 
had irresistibly invested — the place where Lee was. We 
have made a sure thing of it, and risked not a single mis- 
take, and captured the situation. The Army of the Poto- 
mac (Rebel) reached the river, defeated, dispirited, strag- 
gling, hungry, and dirty. The Army of the Potomac 
(Union) arrived in the same vicinity, tired, equally muddy 
and straggling, perhaps, but flushed with victory, and anx« 


I'oua to mm Lee and finish the war. Providence, to fiivor 
us, had Bcnt, aod cnntinaed to eend, faeavy rains to make 
the Potomac unfordahte. 

First day : discovered the situation of the enemy ; dis- 
patched our vigilant and indomitable cavaby to watch 
them ; heard from the iahabitaiils that the enemy were 
getting their trains over the river. Providence Btill rains 
iipoa as aod our iocs and the Potomac. Second day : we 
upproaoh within ten milea of the whole nrcnit of the 
enemy's outer lines, encamp, and send home word |hat wo 
we about to "bag" their whole force. Raina stiU. "We 
throw out, cautiously, strong pickets. Third day: wo pro- 
ceed to coQtract our lines to within, say, four miles of the 
enemy ; make reconnoissances in force, and come upon the 
enemy's lines, with some skirmishing ; immediately retire 
a mile and a half, and throw up inlrenchments aU night. It 
was in a defensive battle that wc conquered at Gettysburg. 
Weacoordinglyget ready for the enemy's attack now; hear, 
from various Bourees, that Lee is crossing the river with 
trains and artillery ; send home another dispatch that we are 
Hire to capture or annihilate the whole force of the enemy. 
It still continues raining, to retard as much as possible 
the enemy's bridging and crosdng operaticca. Fourth 
day : advance our forces from one-fourth 'to one-half a 
mile, and throw np another line of intrenchmenis ; hear 
that the enemy has crossed over a large part of his forces, 
and is only holdbg his linos with a strong rearguard to 


protect the passage. We immediately telegraph to our 

friends that Lee cannot possibly escape, and we are sore 
to destroy or capture his whole force. Cavalry retires to the 
rear, and wc sleep on our arms or in the rifle-pits, await- 
ing a momentary attack. Eains incessantly. Fifth day : at 
daybreak we ^ve the word to advance along onr whole 
line. We ** move upon the enemy's works." Works are 
ours. Enemy, sitting on the other side of the river, pep- 
forming various gyrations with his fingers, — thumb on his 
nose. We contemplate ruefully the nondescript bridge he 
has contrived out of confiscated timber and canal-boats, 
^hich it was ** impossible " he could build, or cross upon 
if built. Kain still continues more violently than ever 
as a judgment upon us for not improving it as a blesang 
a few days before. 

Nevertheless, although the laugh is rather against us 
for letting the enemy get away from us so leisurely, it 
must be allowed that it is no easy thing to keep an army 
of fifty thousand men, occupying a very strong position 
as Lee did, from crossing a river. Our army crossed a 
great river twice, in the face of the enemy, without much 
loss ; and twice in retreat, after a defeat, entirely unmo- 
lested and unharmed : whereas we have damaged these 
fellows considerably in the last of their crossing, capturing 
prisoners, variously stated at from two to four thousand. 


Harper's Ferry, July 15. 
Twenty-five miles' march to-day, and after our month's 
continuous hard work too. So, you sec, we are still 
hard after the enemy, if he did give us the slip yester- 
day. We mean he shall do some of the ** tallest" kind 
of marching if he succeeds in reaching Eichniond at the 
end of his race ; and he won't get there with all his fifty 
thousand men either. They straggle amazingly, and, we 
think, pretty willingly, as they journey back to beloved 
Dixie ; and the stragglers count for us the way we are 
journeying now. Our army is in good spiiits, as you may 
well suppose, but very tired and knocked up, having done 
an amount of labor in the past five weeks that must be 
shared and seen to be appreciated. I believe the country 
does, in some measure, appreciate, and is grateful for it. 
This army "deserves well of the Republic " for the work 
of these few weeks especially. Let the country have it in 
remembrance. The empty sham of Rebellion is collapsing 
fefit and. finally. Let Northern Copperheads beware ! We 
are reading the accounts of such scenes of blood and vio- 
lence as are taking place in the city of New York to-day, 
with an indignation that scarcely finds words to express 
itself; and we see who are responsible for these outrages. 
We are coming home soon, and we shall not fire hlanh 
cartridges at riotous "friends" who resist the laws, and 
fill our streets and houses with blood. 



LouDOX Vallet, near Harper's Ferry, July 20. 
'XT'OU ought to have seen our corps move into tho 
JL huge blackberry-fielJ, or rather succession of them, 
last eveuing. after their hot mid-daj march. The habit 
of military discipline prevailing kept the men in the ranks 
tin they were regularly dismissed, though every tread 
crushed out the bloo^l of scores, and Uncle Sam's stiff 
brogans were soaked in (^dewberry) gore. But when tho 
orders, *' Stack arms I " ** Rest I '* had been given, in an 
instant, in a nothing of time, in the hundredth part of the 
** twinkling of a bedpost,'' the whole battle array was melted 
away. The glittering lines of stacked arms were all that was 
left upright in the field. The backs only were visible of a 
half-dozen thousand tired soldiers, who are not wont to turn 
their backs to the enemy : and as the manna which came 
from heaven to the Israelites in the wilderness, when the 
dtw rose in the morning, so disappeared this gracious pi*o- 
VLsion of Heaven's bounty for our weary boys ; and they 
rose (not very soon) refreshed from their luscious banquet. 
There were enough, and tc spare. Fields and hills all 



around us are black with them, — more millions of tiny 
blackamoors than our stray of a,boEtioniats oan put out of 
the way in a week. But we are doing our best : heaped 
bowls and platca of blackberries for teu and for breakfa»<t ; 
a few blackberries as we went to bed ; a few on wuking 
this morning, to take the cobwebs out of our mouth and 
throat ; (how much better than fiery whisliy for that pur- 
pose ! ) and now a few more to start on just as wo are 
leaving. It has been a bkckbenying on the grandest 
scale I have attended for a long time. Wc are rather 
leisnrely moving ap the valley this time, it aeema to me ; 
but perhaps aa iiiat as is wise, considering our march-worn 
menandnsed-up mules and horses. I have no news for your 
oever-satisfied newspaper maw. You are getting so much 
and such glorious news from all over the country, in these 
times, that the httle items I might givo you would most 
likely be utterly overlooked if seat- 

To show you that all the gallant and chivalrio osploits 
are not confined to the history of ancient battles, to the 
kiiight*rrant and feudal times, I am going to tell you of 
one httle incident of the late battle, which, I know, you 
will thank me for relating, and for the truth of which 
you may put me down as authority. There was a huge 
bam right in the trai^ of that desperate charge of the 

216 nrxN brownk in the abmt. 

enemy on the 3d, whose blackened brick walls are doubt- 
less remembered, by every visitor of the bittle-field, as one 
of its most prominent objects. It is the same bam which 
a part of the 12tli Xew Jersey charged, and carried 
in gallant style, on the evening of the 2d, capturing 
therein ninety-seven prisoners ; and at another time two 
companies of the 14th Connecticut, also with a amilar 
result, but not so many prisoners. Indeed, it was on the 
debatable ground between the two armies, and the scene 
of many a sharp conflict between the advancing and reced- 
ing pickets, where not a few noble fellows breathed out 
their lives during the three bloody days. The incident 
I speak of occurred on the afternoon of the 2d. The 
skirmishers were firing very briskly, and those of the 
enemy, heavily re-enforced, were pressing our line back. 
Eight or ten of our boys were holding the bam ; but the 
enemy's line had come up even with it, and more ; and it 
was evident thaf our little party must fall back, and let the 
Butternuts gain the advantageous position for harassing us. 
The colonel in command of the second brigade, third divi- 
sion, second army corps, called for an officer to volunteer 
to go down to the line, and order our boys to fire the bam 
before retiring. Quick as thought, my hero put spurs to 
his steed, — most men would have crawled down on foot to 
a front where bullets were buzzing as they were there at 
that time, — and dashed down the slope with at least fifty 
skirmishers practicing on him as a target. Bight up to the 


bam he charged (whiob I have tohl you was flush with, nnd 
oven a litlJo Iwyond, the enemy's !me of skirmishers) , uooUy 
delivered his message, and theu turned and rode back ta 
our lines, espoaed to u redoubled fire. Aa the anrprise of 
the rebels at his coming was over, and knowing that he 
mnat return the same way, they had time to prepare, and 
to lake deliberate aim from all adcs. Miraculously, not 
one of the hundred buUets that whistled near him touched 
either rider or linrse. On reaching our lines, though by' 
no means out of range of the balls, he reined his hoif* 
romid, waved h\s hat in the uir, and made a gracefiil 
bow to the unseen marksmen, who, I really beheve, were 
not Sony to see him escapo unharmed. To make the thing 
complete, our noble Gen. Hancock, and several other gen- 
erals, were at that time passing that part of the lines, and 
saw the gallant deed done ; and the general lifted his hat in 
honor of the brave soldier, who at thut moment rode up. 
I have told you the Htory, and now I tell you the name of 
the hero, — Capt. Poatles of the 1st Delaware, acting in- 
Bpector-goneral of the second brigade of our division : many 
more brave deeds may he live to perform, and escape as 
&rtniiat«Iy ! I heard a practical man say that it was a 
foolish thing to do ; that the captain might as well have 
effected bis object by going down cautiously on foot, &c. 
Away with such praotical notions ! The example of such 
& dashing dcod as this, and ecores of other amllar ones I 
might mention, is of a worth iuestimahle in an array. It 

21 s Drxx unowNE in the army, 

is l\v Mu^li a high spirit of courage, such a scorn of danger. 
th:it \\w tuno of an anny L? to bo kept up. I tell yoB» 
8»^liliors in a tnring hour will follow such a man as da* 
whon^vor it is mvossary io go ; and it is positively necefr 
>siry. s*"tniotimos. to gi^* into very dangerous places indeedi 
Xk-s cain Ivattlos. 


Anil it is not tho et>mKntants alone that improve oppot^ 
tnnitios for ilisplaying i^Mirago. You have seen many inc^^ 
«lonts narratojl of suriri^">ns' and of cliaplains' coolness an» 
bvavoiT. 1^0 it for mo to speak of those qualities in tfie 
anihulanooi^orps. \Miero men arc killed and wounded, 
thon^ must jri> tho t^fficors of the ambulance brigade, and 
tho sirotrluM* camod U^ bring tho poor fellows off the field. 
Anil m.niy a timo tlid T soe tho stretcher-carriers fired upon 
an»l wouiulod whilo boaring away the wounded ; even, in 
s'kmo insi.moos. tho wounded rebels. But they did not 
desist Inun tlioir humane work ; and many a time did I 
wati-li nuxiouslv. fearing evorv moment to see him fall, 
nnr ambnlanoo-lieutenant Sullivan, of the l-tth Indiana 
(you siv. wo of tho States are mixed up together, brothers 
in tlio givxl (•:iu>o). a-^ he ooolly rode all over the field, 
sometimes in tho thickest of tho firing, and away to tho 
front even of our piclvo.ts. on his errand of mercy, not sat- 
isfied to leave a siu'jrlo snirL'i'ing man uncared for on the 
bloody field, and having his black horse at last shot under 


; besides many hair-breiKlth escapes. All honor to 
such nolile fellow?, wherever they are ! I will call namea 
in sach cases. I am proud to bo tho feeble cbioniclcr of 
such incidents ; proud to have opportunity to mingle with 
Ihem as comrades, to grasp their hands in trae fraternal 
friendship, and ever to count them, in after-life, as thcisa 
who have been tried, and not found wanting, in times of 
need. There are rare and prceious flowers growing out 
of the blood-drenched soil of war : I know you will thant 
me for eeudlng you occa^onally a bouquet of tbcm. 

Bloohfield, Va., July 21. 
Modesty leads me to speak of the leading personage in 
the subjoined military bulletui in the third person, and 
using only his initials 


Foray of the enemy on our flank. Rebel lieutenant 
passes gap m Loudon Hi^htn , descends in force upon a 
parly of our teamsters wbc were strayed away, contrary to 
orders, seizing hay near said gap; eapturea three of omr 
nrale-drivers and seven mules ; dispersoa the rest, lifty in 
number, men and muks taken together. Accounts difier 
as to whether said tieatenant waa armed with a pistol, or 
unarmed ; also aa to the truth or falsity of his statement, 
that he had a party of armed followera in the woods ; some 
of the teamsters asserting that they distinctly saw three or 
four armed rebels through the trees. 




In this trying emergency, the general in command o^ 
division naturally looks around for an active and eflBicien^^ 
officer to take cliarge of a detachment, rush to the scene 
of action, investigate the circumstances, repel the enemy or 
punish him, and recover the prisoners and property if pos- 
sible. Equally naturally his choice falls upon D. B. 
** Captain, take a couple of lieutenants and twenty men, 
go over, and attend to this business. Don't go far up the 
mountain into the woods; for the gap is doubtless held by a 
force of the enemy's cavalry, and you must not run risks. 
You can't catch those mounted fellows or the mules, it 
isn't likely, with your infantry ; but we never have any 
cavalry on hand when they are wanted, and the thing 
ought to be looked into by somebody." The officer ad- 
dressed accordingly orders his gallant steed, borrows a 
revolver (with three chambers loaded) , details his forces, 
and'prepares for an instant movement. 


Having reviewed his troops, made them a spirited ad- 
dress, and ordered them to load, D. B. turns his face to- 
ward the scene of operations, two miles distant; advancing 
in good order; throwing out his cavalry, which consisted of 
one man from the quartermaster's department mounted on 
a broken-down plug, and armed with a carbine, to the front 
for redoimoitering purposes; riding himself at the head 


of the colman, closely followed by the second lieurenant 
and two of the rcniaiuiDg tcftmst«i-B to act as gi 
the fiist lieatenant bringing up the rear. 


As we approach the point of danger, a detachment of 
two privates is ordered Xa take posaesgion of a louse on the 
left, and hold it till our roturn, guarding against surprise 
from that direction; wiiilo om- w'jole liglit wing (nine men) 
was deployed to skirmish through a ])iecc of woods on the 
oppofflte side, where susplL-ious movementa {fii a Small 
dog) had been reported. . The main body, re-eoforeuJ by 
an additional unarmed teamater, adyanced with the utmost 
Bleadinesfl, but with caution, and took possession of the 
house and bam where the capture had taken place; the 
owner thereof sitting ealinly on his porch aa if nothing had 
happened. Partiea are dispatched to search the throe houses 
in the neighborhood, and gather together the masculine in- 
habitants; others to bring in all the horeos that could be 
found, with a view to their confiseatlon if their owners 
should be proved seceah. Tho skirmishcra on the right 
having been called in, and a pergoant and three men left as 
a guai'd, the commander-in-chief, with his two corps com- 
manders and whole available force, consisting of fourteen 
non-coniniissioned officers and piivates, spreading out his 
line to a great distance to avoid being flanked by the ene- 
my, proceeds to skirmish up the mountain about three- 

221 ^^1 
and I 


quarters of a mile, nearly to the crest of the gap. Traces 
of the mls.-ing mules are discovered leading over the gap ; 
Lut ordering a halt at this stage of operations, and calling 
a council of war of his inferior officers, D. B. decides that 
hLs orders and the smallness of his force, though their zeal 
to pre^ forward is very great, will not allow him to make 
a farther advance, and with that prudence, which, united 
with fiery valor and untiring energy, constitutes the perfect 
military chieftain, orders a retrograde movement to our hase 
of operations, — the house and bam aforesaid. 


The horses collected from the vicinity being examined, 
and found to consist of three or four aged mares with 
colts, two lame work-horses, one wall-eyed brute with a 
swelling on his near hind-foot as big as a peck-measure, 
and two or three yearling colts, it was unanimously 
decided that the owners were good Union men, and we 
should be scarcely justified in any measures of confiscation. 
We accordingly returned in the same order we came, tak- 
ing with us the owner of the house and bam where the 
fracas first occurred, on whose person we found a pass fix)m 
the rebel lieutenant, above referred to, as our single pris- 
oner. The casualties of our command in this expedition 
were one deserter, who stole a saddle and decamped 
while we were making our advance up the gap; one 


man wounded, not dangerously, by falling upon the lock 
of his musket going over a brook ; and one shoe lost from 
the near fore-foot of the hard-trotting horse ridden by the 
commander-in-chief. All the party, officers and men, in- 
cluding the cavalry, were honorably mentioned in the dis- 
patches; the conduct of the chieftain was approved by the 
general ordering it ; the prisoner was turned over to the 
provost-marshal, and, after a day's detention, discharged ; 
and D. B. returned to his usual round of subordinate 

Thus endetb his £rst separate military expedition. 



Warrenton Junction, July 27, 1868. 

I SEE the draft is going forward on the whole, perhaps, 
as well as was to Ix) expected throughout the North, 
fencing you couldn't quite muster up courage and decision 
enough to hang a couple of Seymours and Fernando 
Wood as an appropriate preliminary measure. If they 
had been promptly suspended at the outset, siay on a 
brilliantly illuminated gallows, to form a grand closing 
piece at the fireworks Fourth-of-July night, tlie draft needn't 
have been suspended a single day in New-York City or 
elsewhere. Not that I am in favor of a draft myself, at 
this late period of the war. It would have been the most 
fair and righteous way to have obtained our soldiers in 
the first place, would liave been submitted to quietly, and 
would have saved the vast sums lavished in extravagant 
and unequal bounties, and tlie injustice done to those who 
didn't receive any. But now I foresee many dijQ&culties 
and much friction in the carrying-out of the plan. The 
difficulty of getting the men into the field will be very 



I great, and the loss by desertion large. There wiU be 
much ill feeling bred between the old soldiers of the vari- 
ous regents and the now ones brought in to fill up 
their ranks. The cry of " Conscripts! " will bo the greeting 
of the new mon from the mischiof-makera in the army. 

• The old eoldiera will want all the promotions, and the new 
vill bo and will thinlc thesisolTes entitled to their share ; 
and, in many respects, it will require the greatest care 
and prudence on tie part of the officers and all concerned 
to prevent collisions, and keep matters smooth and pleasant. 
I say thw not aa a foreboder of eyil, but aa reforring to a 
practical matter that may he, if foreseen, in a great measare 
guarded against. There is no good reason why these new 
recruits should not eomo joyfully and gratefully to the 
Beirice of their country in this final and doubtless brief 
struggle to end the war, and establish the authority of the 
Qovemment ; nor any reason why they should not be 
fratornally welcomed. The hardest of the work ia un- 
doubtedly done, even though the contest should yet be 
oonsiderably prolonged. The power of the Hebellion is 
bmken ; ita resources nearly exhausted ; the success of onr 
armies cortwn, and not far off. Tlie harddiips to be 
endured now are not so great as they have been. The 
unnecessary annoyances and privations caused by the blun- 
dere of green commanders are of course iesseucd with the 
e^rienee acc^mred. There is the opportunity of doing 
fala service fo one's country, and of getting tie glory 


of finishia g up the war ; of being in at the death of th- 
Rebellion. The ones that complete the job get tlie credits- "** 


Come on, then, my brave friends who have hitherto ^ 
been kept at home by the pressure of other important avo- 
cations, — come, and spend a few months in getting an 
experience that will be of the greatest value to you for the 
whole remainder of your life. Come, editors and profess- 
ors, merchants, armorers, clergymen, mechanics, farmers, 
legislators, office-holders, lawyers, clerks, and everybody; 
save your three hundred dollars, and wreathe your brow 
with military laurels ; wear Uncle Sam's brilliant uniform, 
eat his bounteous rations, and put his beautiful greenbacks 
in your pocket. Come out, and fall into the ranks with us, 
and get familiar with your facings, and your wheelings, and 
your *' Shoulder arms! '' and your ** Charge bayonets ! " 
If you do your duty right manfully, we'll make you corpo- 
rals ; we'll raise you to the dignity of commissioned offi- 
cers ; yea, you may yet get to be brigadiers if the Rebellion 
be not too hastily crushed. We'll give you, on the whole, 
a soldierly welcome, and thank you for filling our thinned 
ranks ; and the memory of our brave brothers who have 
f^iUcn on many bloody fields will endear to us those who 
stand in their places. You will bring to us the fragrance 
of home and friends, the fresh zeal of Northern patriot- 
ism and courage ; and we will lend to you the benefit of 


V experience, and tbo ateocly valor und oonfidence ao- 
(juired and proved on many biittlc-fields. You can make 
QB wearied velerans twice as valuable by imparting to us 
jour ardor, and we can make jou twice aa valuable by 
imparting to you out steadiness and eipcricnco. And 
wo'll soon go borne together, rejoicing in a saved country, 
found to lie tenfold more prosperous than ever before, witb 
a flag waving over our heads tbat hencefortb neitber home 
traitors nor foreign foes shall dare insult, and a Fourth of 
July to celebrate on which children and children's children 
shall namo ua with the same honor that we have been 
aceuatomed to accord the glorious fathers of our Republic. 
Yes, come on, even Copperheads ; and, if there is the least 
spark of true patriotic life left in your wretched breasts, 
we'll kindle it with the snap of percuiision-caps into a 
healthy flame, and brace up your systeiu with the whole- 
some tonic of whistling bullets and bursting shells, till we 
can send you home recovered and in your right minds, 
with a leg or an arm less than now, perhaps, but what 
there is lofl at least loyal, and not a nuisance and a dis- 
grace to tho community. 

I haven't any special army news for you. We have 
now succeeded, in three weeks' hard, incessant labor, — 
Buoh marching ind countennarching as no army during 
the war has done before, ^in losing all the advantage in 
position and other respects that we had OTcr the enemy 
on the Footth of July. We are not rusting away in 


inaction : that i.> somo comfort. We are here, there, and 
ever}'wheie, putting ourselves in the way of being at- 
tacke<l by the enemy. If he will only be fool enough to 
attack us, as at Gettysburg, we shall utterly destroy him ; 
that is, if he continues to attack us long enough and often 
enough. Let us hope he will. Great is Meade; but 
the Napoleon hasn't risen yet. We make gods of our 
generals, or curse them as fools. Gen. Meade is a good 
genei-al. The anny is satisfied with him, on the whole ; 
thinks that he has undoubtedly erred on the side of too 
much caution ever since Gettysburg, but believes in him 
as a competent, faithful, patriotic officer, of very feir 
abilities, and good moral character ; which is a great deal 
to expect of a general, — a very great deal. Don't let us 
be unreasonable. 



Elkton, Va., Aug. 4, 1868. 

I THOUGHT I had been through nearly all the vary- 
ing experiences of military life : but there was one 
thing that had been omitted, sure enough, come to have 
it brought to mind ; which omission, I am able now to 
inform you, has been supplied. I had been on picket and 
in skirmishes, in battles great and small, in all sorts of 
marches and bivouacs and encampments, on duty on foot 
and in the saddle, in the regular line, and on staff and 
various detached service among friends, and a prisoner in 
the hands of the enemy ; but I had never been court-mar- 
tialed. I had, to be sure, been detailed to sit as member 
of such a body ; I had acted in the capacity of witness 
before such an august assembly : but in the most inter- 
esting character of all, that of the accused party, I never 
had opportunity to appear. In future, I need not plead 
ignorance of the feelings of a person in such a position. 
And, say what you please about the matter, one can enter 
into the rea' spirit of a court or trial of any kind in no 
other capacity whatever as he can in that of prisoner at 



2:J0 nuxy BROWNE in the army. 

tlio bar. Talk of being a judge, or a juryman, or a 
lu-itor for the plaintifF or defendant, or a spectator, or 
witness, or a sherilF. Pooh ! All these parts 
arc nothing to that of the prisoner at the bar. He is th^ 
principal i)orsonnge in the di*ama, around whom the interesir 
nuist center, on whom the ciisis of the plot must hinge. -- 
The next time you are listening to the eloquence of some^*^'^ ^® 
distinf];uishoil counsel, and admiring his exquisite taste and 
inllucnco with the jury, just try to realize your emotions 
if your life or fortune or reputation hung upon his elo- 
quent lips. The next time you see the judge put on his 
black cap and long face to sentence a prisoner, imagine 
that you are the doomed individual for whoso especial 
l»onclit the ceremony in question is to be gone through 
with. And the next time you see an anxious, crowded 
c(»urt-rooiii awaiting the verdict of the jury, consider in 
what spirit you would enter into the scene were yours the 
verdict on which they wore deliberating. Ilowever it 
may be with you, dear *' Republican," and many other 
virtuous people, I acknowledge henceforth to be able to 
liavc a very lively sympathy for the man who is on the 
wrong side of the bar in a criminal court. 

Ilowever, if you infer fiom these remarks that there 13 
any ^roat resemblance between a court of justice and a 
cimrt-martial, you will have a very erroneous notion. 
Why, just think of the pre^wsterousness of Buch an idea ! 
Take half a dozen officers who have been marching all 


^ay, perhaps, and want to rest llieir weary bones, or write 
B hasty letter t« wives and sweeibearts at night, dragged 
into a little hot tent, und obliged to sit till Jtidnight hcai^ 
ing the details of Kome frivoloos case of a man who went to 
fill bia canteen without orders, or an officer who neglected 
to make bis report at the proper hour or on the right-sized 
fibeeta of paper, — details of a ease in wbiuh all the qnes- 
tions, and answers of the witnesses, must be in writing, 
and where every thing is conducted in the slowest and 
moat old-fogyisb style. Why, who could be espeuted 
to decide rightly, to do justice, or even to keep awake, 
acting oa sueb a court? Of course, a court-martial on a 
serious case, convened with propriety, and conducted with 
its appropriate dignities and formalities, is a respectable, a 
Yenorable institution, and perhaps as apt to do justice 
as any court in the world. But the way wo have had 
them in our army of late ; the multiplying of cases, often 
of the slightest possible consequence, before them ; the 
catching a few occasional spare moments for their sitting 
between the marches ; and the very inadequate considera- 
tbn which can be afforded to the cases tried, — certainly 
tend to make the whole thing seem a farce to a man with 
a naturally rather strong sense of the ludicrous in his 

For myself, not to speak more lightly than I can help 
of what should be a serious matter, after remaining in 
some days, and after three times appearing with my 


witnesses at times and places appointed, to find the trial 
|K>:stponed, — at last, one very rainy evening, when I bad 
about concluded the whole thing was an ignis-JhtuuSf 
destined to elude for ever my eager grasp, I caught it, sure 
enough, in the judge-advocate's little tent. Five tired 
officers had been gotten together, and the case came on, 
while my witnesses, in rubber overcoats, stood outside in 
the rain till they were wanted. The court and judge- 
advocate were duly sworn ** to well and truly try; " the 
charge, and its specification, ** Neglect of duty in not pre- 
venting the straggling of such division of the array on 
such a march of five days," were duly read; and the ac- 
cused entered his plea of **Not guilty." Then the single 
witness for the United States, who was also the one who 
preferred the charge, gave in his evidence that he did 
not see the defendant using any efibrts to prevent strag- 
gling during the whole march of five days, although he 
had himself issued to him the most stringent orders to 
that effect ; and the case for the prosecution closed. Then 
the witnesses for the defendant — two of whom, however, 
had ingloriously "skedaddled" back to their quarters out 
of the rain — testified that the probable reason why the 
prosecutor luid not seen efforts on the part of the accused 
to keep tlie men in their places was that he was himself 
not there to see, none of them having seen liim along tha 
column, in more than one instance, during the five days ; 
also that the straggling of the command was comparatively 


very slight, and caused by the excessive ana needlessly 
rapid marching, the exhausted soldiers falling out in spite 
of efforts to keep up. Then a few words from the de- 
fendant, interrupted by the yawnings of the court, and the 
case was closed, the trial over, and the prisoner very soon 
sleeping in his own tent the sleep of conscious innocence ; 
uneasy only from the fear, that, as several guilty persons 
had been recently acquitted, he might be the other thing, 
or, if acquitted, might be considered, on that account, 
guilty. But when a few more days had rolled away, a big 
document came down from headquarters, informing your 
humble correspondent that the honorable couit had found 
nothing against him, unless it were an acquittal ; and so 
ordered his release from arrest. So endeth this episode in 
his career. 

Am I foolish to tell you of all these little personal 
matters ? Not at all. Am not I a member of your fam- 
ily, dear '* Father RepubUcan " ? and shall not the child 
prattle in your ears of all his daily experiences, even to 
the whippings he gets at school? Oughtn't I to be 
ashamed to acknowledge having appeared on a criminal 
charge before the authorities of my country ? Not at all. 
Isn't it all a part of the experience, a part of the things, 
for which we put down our names ? Shall we receive good 
at the hands of our lesser governmental Providence, and 
shall we not receive evil also ? Is it not thi'ough much 
tribulation, some starvation, and a vast deal of vexation, 

234 nuxy browne ix the army, 

tlmt wo ?h:ill enter into the i-ewards and honors that our 
giMKl Uncle Samuel bath to hestow? Must we not lose 
li'gs if we would entitle ourselves to pensions ? K we 
"jet promotion from his paternal hand, shall we gmmhle 
if there he mingled therewith an occasional courtrmardal^ 
Let us be rea.sonal)le, my friends, whatever wo are, and 
not allow any unworthy prejudices to get possesion of 
our minds. As for reputation, who ever was above su£K-^ 
pieion? A person may be so low and small as to 
beneath suspicion, but above it nev^, till ho gets above 
this world and all that is therein. The great and pure 
Father of his Country was not above suspicion ; nay, the 
bles.**ed Redeemer of mankind was not himself above 
suspicion. So it is all nonsense to use that kind of talk. 
A mean man can suspect anybody. The more virtuous, 
the more apt to be suspected. With which scraps of 
morality, commending them to your kind attention, and 
asking you to bo as easy with me as the court-martial has 
been, and honorably acquit me from all charges of neglect 
of duty to you-ward, I remain, very respectfully, your 
obedient servant. 


If you should notice any thing brilliant in my style of 
writing of late, you may attribute it to the inspiration 
of the sliooting stars that have abounded in the heaven 
of these latitudes for a little while back ; also perhaps, 



in some measure, to the sparkling conversation of three 
pretty secesh young ladies with whom I dine every day. 
(You needn't mention to my wife, though, this latter cir- 
cumstance.) I was riding along our eleven-miles line of 
pickets the other night, whan the me'ooric shower was so 
profuse, that I involuntarily longed fijr an umbrella to 
shed it off from me. On the right, on the left, in front, 
and in the rear, down came the streaming rockets through 
the sky, till I could have imagined the enemy shelling us, 
and my ears grown deaf to the noise of the explosions ; till 
it actually seemed as if the next sky-missile would hit me. 
I had been under all sorts of musketry-fire, and whatever 
infernal contrivances are belched forth from the mouths of 
cannon ; but it did seem a little odd to get into the center 
of such a lively discharge of shooting stars. I wonder 
if any thing like this is alluded to in that Scripture pas- 
sage in the song of Deborah, ** The stai-s in their courses 
fought against Sisera." They all struck pretty wide of 
their mark, though, in my case, and, I suspect, must have 
been random shots, most of them, — perhaps just Dame 
Nature trying her guns a little to get their range. 

By the way, can it be true that we are to have yet 
another change of commanders in the Army of the Poto- 
mac ? That would spoil our delightful situation here along 
the Rappahannock, with a flowery lea (Lee) upon one 
bank, and a grassy mead(e) upon the other. Is one 
battle apiece all that our commanders are any of them to 


l>e alloweil to fight ? Ah, well ! my turn is coming, then, 
all the sooner ; and, if my battle happens to be the last 
one, then I'm the next President to a dead certainty. Is 
there any little fat Liverpool consulate or New- York col- 
lectorship you could be prevailed upon to accept, patriotic 
*' Republican '* ? Meantime I am going to ask the Sec- 
retary of War for permission to recruit my company from 
the deposed major-generals. There are just enough of 
them (with a few conscripts that have recently arrived) 
to bring my number up to the maximum. After I had 
drilled them a little, no doubt they would do good service; 
only I'd have to be pretty careful, in distributing them 
into groups for tent-mates, to preserve the harmony which 
I always insist upon in my little military family. 


Did I tell you ever, among the affecting little things 
one is always seeing in these shifting war-times, how I saw, 
on the second Bull-Run battle-field, pretty, pure, delicate 
flowers growing out of emptied ammunition-boxes ; a fine 
rose thrusting up its graceful head through the head of a 
Union drum, which doubtless sounded its last charge (or 
retreat, as the case may have been) in that battle ; and 
a cunning scarlet verbena peeping out of a fragment of 
bursted shell in wliich strange cup it had been planted ? 
Wasn't that peace growing out of war ? Even so shall 
the graceful and the beautiful ever grow out of the horrid 


and temblo tilings that trenapire in thia cbaaging bat 
ever-advancing world. Nature quickly covers even battle- 
grounds with verdure and blMm. Peace and plenty soon 
ajiring up ~i tho track of deyDBtating campaigns ; and all 
thiDga in nature and in Bocioty sliall work out the 
progress of mankind, and tho harmony of Ch)d'e great 

Are the points of this epistle eomewhat misceUaneous 
and unconnected 1 Have I written considerable nonsense ? 
"Am I volatile^ " as little Mias Mouclier asks in "Duvid 
Copperfield." Well, it is owing to tho heat, which is 
enongh to eyaporate any thing. If jou will heiieve me, 
this very letter, kept until miiJwinter, or suffered to con- 
dense a few hours in an ice-house, would settle down into 
a few hues of very good senso. Perhaps as a beverage, 
thongh, it will be better to drink it before the effervescence 
Bubsides. No, really, Mr. Editor, Ihad a good many weighty 
things on my mind to-night, was a littio vexed and wor- 
ried, and have been trying to write myself into good 
spirits, "regardless of expense" to you and your read- 
ers. Good-night ! I think I can sleep. There goes 
another meteor ! 


yoa want 

North seen 

fimpbalic voice, to 

DO fOQ want to know what the men of the great free 
North seem to mo to be saying, in loadest, most - 
poor fellows of the army ? " Sou 
iteoiptible Bcoundrele, not fit to be as- 
A with hy decent people. We have a perfect horror 
of your society. Far from accepting the President's very 
general and pressing invitation to join your ranks, and 
woric hy yoiir ade for a time, we will pay any sum of 
money, we will try all sorts of excuses and evasions, yea, 
descend to the meanest tricks, to keep out of yom 
hatefd society. We hold nobody to be joar proper com- 
panions but shoulder-hitters, plug-uglies, dead rabbits, and 
all manner of vile vagabonds, the refaae of our cities, flie 
TufGans from our penitentiaries, whom we use acoordiagly 
caressing, coaxing, and bribing to go to you in our places. 
Nay, you are such a nuisance, that we won't oven leave 
oar indignation to be expressed by mere individual act6 
towards you ; we wiH combine our efforts to spite you 
and isokte you. We will put our heads together as com- 
i in our publio capacity, and vote, as 

towns and cLtien, to turu our liaeks upon you. ; to help aien, 
who would otlienriae go to jfou, to etay awnj, and leave 
yon alono. We'll take adyantage of your absence to lay 
taxes on your property ; to raiae money tn keep decent peo- 
ple away from you ; and to buy murdercre, thieves, and 
other Yillains, to go to you in their plaMS, — men who will 
be more likely to cut your throata than those of the 

And is this what you really think of ub, dearly 
beloved of New England ! after whom our hearts yeam 
with an unspeakahle affuetion ; thoughu of whom keep up 
our apiritH in long and toilsomo marches ; visions of whose 
dear feces comfort ua in every hardship, and amidst 
wounds, and oven in the agonies of death 1 la this the 
estimation the people of the Connecticut Valley put upon 
their sons and hrothers who went forth, as we fondly aap- 
posed, upon an errand moat dear to your hearts, in a cause 
you held sacred in your inmost souls t Are our ranks, 
thinned so sorely by disease, wounds, and death, only fit to 
be fiDed up by ruffians imported by your money from the 
dens of New York ? Shall our battle-flags, bearing which 
our best and bravest have gone down on fields of glory, 
and whose state are yet sttdned with tho blood of their 
dying grasp, bo lefl to the proteutton of mercenary 
Wretohes, who care neither for country nor reputation, 
who have sold themselves to you only in the hope of de- 



■ertJng to Bell over ag^o in endless sttcces^on, and wkcJ 
Yeach llie field odIj because pistols and bayonets baviGll 
itood between them and fiigbt? \ 

But putting u3, jour brothers in the Brmy. out of t 
aecount, how are jou treating your country, your o 
government, the embodiment of yovr own royal sove — I 
reignty? As an enemy whose interests are hostile t<»,' 
yours, with whom you are to drive sharp bargains, who i» | 
to lio ouwitted in every possible way ! You ought to vol- 
unteer in nuraberii more than enough to (ill our ranks now" 
80 speedily as to make the shortest kind of work with 
this hollow and collapsiag Rebellion, which nothing bat 
>yoar unpatriotic apathy can keep aUve three monUis 
;loiiger. But yon refuse even to eorae when the fairest of 
;aU possible methods of designating citi^ns for defense has 
■pointed you out, and called you to the field. Your country, 
iftll that in OUT institutions which ia most hallowed with sa- 
iGred associations, which claims your truest allegiance, calls 
grand, indispensable personal efibrt from you; and 
'70U respond with a handful of paltry greenbacks. The 
'tirthright you have boasted of all your life, in the face of 
the natioQB, is in peril ; and you gmmbliugly offer three 
■hundred dollars to a Five-Points pimp and gambler to 
|4^iah in and save it for you. I am ashamed to read in 
newspapers an account of the draft in any place, and 
its \taat and impotent conclusion. A hundred draw prices 


in the lottery of glory and patrioliani : sisty-five of tliem 
obtain escmptioQ on account of sorao physical disability 
(and the variety of diseasea invented for the cccaaion es- 
hnuste the medical vocabulury, and gives more desert of 
praise to the doctors for ingenuity than for patriotism), 
twenty-one pay over their undesired tribute of three hun- 
dred dollars into Uncle Sam's treasury, eiglit furnish 
Bubatitutos, and five patriotically answer the call in their 
own persona. A hundred of those thus actually enrolled 
into the mihtary service of their country start for the place 
of rendezvous. Fifteen mystoriously disappear before reach- 
ing (he point in their State designated for that purpose ; 
twenty break out of their hounds, and escape, before the 
details leave to join their respective regiments ; seven 
are killed or wounded in attempts to do and go likewise ; 
eight of the remainder are claimed as deserters from some 
reg^ent ah'oady in the field, or some other rendezvous of 
recruits. Again : taking one hundred of these last remain- 
ders for a third " attenuation," to speak homeopathically, 
diey embark in a steamer for the seat of war. Fifty-five 
of them are among the niiBsiog at the port where they are 
landed. Eighteen moro elude the vigyance of their guards, 
or are killed and wounded ns abovo, before they reach the 
field ; and the rest — are they not indeed veterans already, 
to have passed through so much, before they have once 
put masket to shoulder ? 


Faugh ! Is this the way in which the loyal people of 
the North show their patriotism, while the disloyal engage 
in riots and bloodshed in open resistance to the Govern- 
ment ? Is this the spirit in which you pay the price de 
raanded ' for all that you hold dear in your country's civil 
and political institutions ? Is this the opinion you deliber* 
ately wish to express of us, your own neighbors and 
friends, whom you sent out at the beginning of the war 
with your prayers and blessings ? If so, then please stop 
talking about our victories. Don't be heaping praises on 
the courage and devotion of your armies. Don't speak 
of the glory of the old flag, the sacredness of our cause, 
or the value of our institutions. It appears that they are 
altogether worth — a begrudged and reluctant three hun- 
dred dollars. Here's to the flag of our Union! — long 
may it wave ! and, if three hundred dollars will carry it 
deep into the ranks of the foe, here's your money ! Down 
with this cursed Kebellion, with cannon, musket, andl)ayo- 
net ; and, if three hundred dollars will send a bayonet, 
there are the greenbacks ! To arms, to arms, my country- 
men ! All you hold most dear is in jeopardy. Hush to 
the rescue I Take with you my blessing, and — this small 
roll of throe hundred dollars in treasury-notes. 

I have done : I can't pursue the subject any farther. 
"Wnat need? I've performed my example in simple addi- 
tion, and the sum total is three hundred dollars. 



Ado. la. 

^^1^ noticed the following extract from " The Boston Joar- 
Dal," somewlioro, lately, in reference to the appearance of 
Gon. Edward Everett with hia two sona, both of whom had 
been drafted, before the board of enrolment of bis district : — 
" Mr. Everett, with the manly patriotism which has dis- 
tinguisbed Ms courso eincc the commencement of this 
war, would not claim exemption foi hia sons, except by the 

And "The Journal" proceeds to speak of this as a 
" agnificant act, proving that Mr. Everett fully meets every 
responsibility growing ont of the war for the Conatitutiot. 
and the Union." Whether the fact concerning Mr. Ever- 
ett and his (two) responsibilities 1« as stated, I^'^l 
the slightest ideaj but the c[uestion occurred to me, if 
this was a striking example of a patriot's comhig fiilly 
iip to "every responsibility growing out of the war," 
what would "The Journal" speak of as a mild, moderate, 
pnuseworthy, but not briUiant, instance of meeting such 
responsbihty 'J Would getting an exemption certificate 
for "myopia" (I have not my diction iuy with me, and 
am not certain of the spelling, and haven't the slightest 
idea of the meaning, of that recently conscripted medical 
term) meet "The Journal's" views of the case suggested? 
If the (reported) course of Mr. Everett in the ease bo an 
^m^nce of exalted patriotism worthy of record among th» 


o examples of history, wortty of the honored governor, 
Mtor, foreign minbter, and pre-eminent eulogist of 
shingtou, I was wondering what might be taken as tho 
indard of duty for tbe ordinary, eveiy-day rank-and-file 
triota who haven't even risen lo be writers for "Tbe New- 
: Ledger." I should judge skedaddling to Canadi 
■wodd be about the "figure," wouldn't it? Shades of 
the ancient Romans and Greeks! I suppose Qnintas 
Curtiua, if he lind lived in these times, instead of plunging 
with hia gullant steed inio the yawning gulf, would, have 
pitched in a bag of brazen asses, and — avoided the draft. 
I suppose Cornelia, the mother of tbe Gracchi, would have 
KOhsped her "jewels " to her breast. And sent out (o the 
ft'Sefence of Konie a couple of jewels from the Emerald Isle 
as substitutes ! If a citizen worth half a million of dollan 
more or less, and many millions of reputation and porition," 
and honorable influence, is worthy of especial mention for 
patriotism, because ho didn't, perhaps, instigate hia sons to 
take the underground railroad for tlio British Provinces, 
hut advised them to come down with their three hundred 
dollars, and came along personally to see them do it, or 
even, it maybe, in aburst of paternal generosity, footed the 
bill for them out of his own pocket, —why, then, I should 
suppose — However, it don't make much dilJerence 
what I suppose. I don't live anywhere near the great 
hub of the universe; am, in fact, nothing more than a 
lighted on one of tbe fellies; and this army life, short 


ratioDB, and gunpowJery atmospbtsre, may tend to confuse 
one's notions of putriotism more or less. 

But seriouBly, my dear friends at home, you have been 
aceuang us of the ormy of losing Berera) glorious oppor- 
tanitiee of oveilluvwiug our eaemics, and, I (Junk, justly. 
We have lost eeveral. But who la losing tbia opportu- 
ni^ now before us ? We have wasted a good deal of 
lime. Who is wasting these most precious days of all, 
when the eneroy h exhausllDg hb last desperate energies 
in preparation for one more gigantic struggle ? Wo might 
have crushed Lee's army on the Fourth of July, you say. 
So do I ; but it would hare been a pretty serious rcspon- 
ntrility to have ordered an advance against the enemy's 
strong poeitioa that morning, nevertheless; for Meade's 
army, all told, numbered just about forty-eight thousand 
men for duty on that morning's report. And we had 
leeu fighting tremendously for throe days, after one of 
the most fatiguing marches an army ever made, and were 
almost entirely out of provisions. Sha\l uot flesh and blood 
have a little allowance made in their bchalf'i We ought 
to have destroyed our foo at Williamsport. Yes, we 
ought; we did lose an opportunity there: but if you 
had been along those ereslfi, and seen the lines of works 
we ought to have stormed, and knew that our numbers 
were scarcely equal to Lee's, perliaps you would have 
lost that opportunity by an equally cautious approach. 
But however it has been with our blunders and mistakes 




in driving Lee back into ^i^ginia, instead of capturing him 
altogether; in only beating, and not destroying him; and 
however much better you woold have done in our places, 

— the simple fact is, now, that we cannot wisely advance 
upon the enemy in his own country with our present force ; 
and if you do not come to our help, and speedily, then it 
is you, and not we, that are losing the noble opportunity of 
striking the final crushing blow at the Bebellion. Come 
on nobly, self-sacrificingly, taking your country's call as 
to yourselves personally, and a few short months must 
accomplish the work in h&nd. Take the call as one upon 
your pockets, or as not meaning you, but somebody you 
can buy and send on in your place, and who, perhaps, will 
occupy the service of one good man as a guard over him 
while he is with us, and finally be shot as a deserter ; and, 
it may be, " The Boston Journal " will consider you as 
** patriotically meeting every responsibility growing out of 
the war for the Union : " but it doesn't appear to us out 
here in that light. We must see some of the very best 
class of our citizens answering the draft in their own per- 
sons, some who find it very inconvenient indeed to leave 
their homes and business, some who have excellent reasons 
for not coming, or else the draft is a failure, the war in- 
definitely prolonged, or perhaps even dishonorably ended, 

— and that, too, when the work is so nearly done ; when 
such a small effort, compared with those the country has 
already repeatedly put forth, would surely soon give us an 


honorable peace. And this ia your own law yon a/a nn- 
nnlling. Talk about the arbitraij enforcement of a hated 
conscription act 1 Why, it was your own chosen repre 
sentatives that passed it, and with public opinion over- 
whelraingly ia its favor. It is your own chosen way of 
designating who should go to the field to serve your coun- 
try. It is yoar own deliberately formed and expressed 
will you are nullifying, your own sovereignty yon are abdi- 
cating and resisting, your own inetitulions you are peril- 
ing, your own homes you are refusing to defend, your own 
brothers you are leaving unsupported in the field. The 
oonacript wheel, turning out your name among the favored 
ones, is just exactly the voice of God and of your coun- 
try saying to you, " Thou art the man ! " and the "Thoa" 
is a personal pronoun, a i-'ery personal pronoun under 
the circumstances, and doesn't mean Michael O'Callaghan 
from a substitute-ofRce in Now York ; doesn't mean a hit 
of your land sold, or a subscription -paper circulated 
among your fi/iends, to raise three hundred dollars : hut 
it means — you. And the cull to you is a call, not to a 
disgrace and burden, but to a glorious privilege, and the 
exercise of your birthright ; to the noblest service you 
have ever had opportunity to eng.ige in, or ever will have 
while your life lasts. Lot the professors of our colleges 
who have thus been providentially selected leave their 
Greek roots and fossil footprints, drop tropes and meta- 
phors, and take up pistol, sword, and bayonet for a time. 


Even tbough tbeir classes should be left untaugbt, tbey 
would be teaching larger classes better lessons; they 
would make all colleges evermore more honorable, and 
the cause of liberal learning more sacred. Let bar and 
pulpit and legislative hall send forth their brightest 
ornaments. No decorations too bright or costly to adorn 
the arch of our country's liberties. Let the sons of 
an Everett, or any of our most honored names, go out as 
cheerfully as our poorest artisans or laborers, and the 
blood that has coursed through the veins of hundreds of 
venerated ancestors be poured forth as freely as water, 
as indeed it has already been, on scores of battle-fields, 
and the work is accomplished. Let the draft be the oc- 
casion of a noble and manly volunteering ; accept it as 
the call of God and your country to glorious, enviable 
service; and the end is indeed near, sure, triumphant. 
Gt)d grant it I 

OiMP KEAB Elk Run, Va., Aug. IT, 1888. 

RODE np to see my regiment a day or two since. 
Being an inspector, sliall I report to you on one 
point? The first thing I heard, on dismounting, waa, 
" Only ten gone since last roll-call 1 " " Ten what ? " do 
jou iaquiro 'I No ; you are not so dull as that question 
would imply, not even in dog-days. You know that " ten 
conscripts" were meant; the "suLstitntes," rather. Three 
thousand dollars' worth of New England's purchased 
heroes had vanished within the two hours previous to my 
arrival ; eighteen thousand dollars' worth in the three da3r3 
previous ; sixty out of tvfo hundred and t«n in one regi- 
ment, and the ratio increasing constantly. The most of 
the missing are in New York, I presume, hy this time, and 
ready for another campaign equally short and remuneror 
tive with the one they have brought just now Bucccssfiilly 
to a close. One of them boasted that he had already 
made thirteen hundred dollars in the substituto business. 
Several others had sold themselves twice. Another, who 
bad just gambled away the most of the three hundred 

2S0 Duyy BsowyE m the army. 

doDats ttiat cooftituwd his prizo, in ordei to get biniBelf 
in (vnils again. I^niponrily, till tbe next ^e, stole seventy— 
fire dollars which one of oar good boya had just been 
paid oa the night be left. Three hundred passed onr 
be«d<^uarters last night, — all sulistitutcs, — at least on&- 
third of them sconndreb who had been engaged in the 
Sew-York riots, and found it convenient to retire a little 
whde into the ponntiy, took the three hnndred doHara to 
pa^ their expenses, and expect to bo back to their old 
haunts as soon as Gov. Seymour bus hushed up that tit- 
tle affair between his "friends" and the authorities. 
Some of them won't go back. Two were killed and sev- 
eral wounded on their way here from the station, seeking 
to break guard. We can, probably, by letting the enemy 
go unwatched, and turning our whole attention to these, 
our Northern friends, be able to cateh some of them as 
thoy are deserting, and, by shooting, save ourselves from 
any further trouble from those particular individuals ; but 
our patriotic brethren at home will soon supply their 
places for us with equally valuahle materials for our ar- 
mies. Still, a better plan would be, as soon as the substi- 
tutes are regularly accepted, and mustered into the United- 
States service, to send them to the several State peniten- 
tiaries for tliree yeors, or during the war ; as they could be 
guaiiied more cheaply and safely there than here ; and our 
army will be likely to have as much other business on 
baud as we can attend to, without the extra duty of guard 
ing your criminals. 

^^^iBee SI 


a some of the Northern newspapers are blaming the 
drafted men who pay the three hundred dollare' comrauta- 
tion-nionoj, and praising the patriotic ones who furnish 
Buhstitutes instead. Ttus is a great mistake, so far us we 
can judge by what suhatitutfia have oh-eady arrived. The 
three hundred dollars that the drafted patriot pays over to 
the Government doesn't in itself damage the eountry any : 
thoagh it isn't a man, yet it isn't a murderer or rioter, 
liock it up in a safe, and it won't run away. Tlio ruEEan 
who comes to muke good the place of the citizen, on the 
contrary, does more damage to the country and the Gov- 
ernment and the cause than an armed rebel, on the average. 
Let ua hope, therefore, my dear friends, who can't think 
of coming in person to strike one final hlow at the Rebel- 
lion, in accordance with a law that you yourselves made 
and deaignaled in the fairest of all possible ways, — let us 
hope that yon will pay over the money instead of the other 
thing, especially in those of our own towns which have 
voted to raise money, partly by taxes on our property, to 
hay substitutes for those who are indisposed (o come and 
help us ; and let our voice at least be heard in this, — 
that you will give onr money to the Government, and Dot 
send U3 with it that which we can make no use of ex- 
cept by hanging or sLooting. Please don't make us, even 
in the most indirect way, responsible for those fellows. 
Not that we will object to your sending us substitutes, if 
n,i;ill take men that you know, and that cao be trusted 

^jOHjUill ta 


Not that we wiU object if you warrant them for a year, as 

is usually done with any purchased article. Yoa mako it 

Dorriago or a clock for me : you expoct to warrant it to 

\ year. Why not warrant your soldier not to rtin 

Lfcr the same time, and hind yourself to come in his place 

■ If ho skedaddles ? You wouldn't want your name on an 

^'Vticle of merchandise or manofacturo that was a cheat 

mpoaition. Do you want your name to be ropre- 

I'-sented in this great transaction, whose object ia to preserve 

your liberties and insCitntions, by a man who conies \a 

desert, and whose best possible use to his country ts 

to hung him^ It ia just the simple fact, and within the 

I truth, that a large portion of those who have yet arrived 

IB substitutes for conscripts are of this class, and that you 

I had good reason to know them to be so before they came, 

1 and did put them under the strictest kind of a guard, to 

n from pluadering your towns and houses, before 

I you sent them on to be let loose among ns with anna mi 

[ their hands. 

So here are our forces reduced to mere skeletons of 
f mlitaiy organizations; the war almost finished; so that 
t one-fourth of the men asked for by the Government would 
i to move on to decisive and final victory before 
winter ; and the wholo country, even patriotic New Eng- 
land, ao far as at present appears, is just forming itself 
into one vast mutual insurance company against the Oov- 
ernnuint, which is only their own agent and representa- 


tire, — one grand, ingenious combination to prolong the 
war, encourago the rebels, and leave the armies of their 
brethren to disgrace. la it the 8ame North t|]at spoke 
when Sumter fel!, ■ — now, just as it is ready to fall again, 
back into our hands ? 


There are reasons for most things, though women and 
diplomatists don't always give the true ones. There is a 
reason, doubtless, for the change of countenance of the 
Northern people towards this war we are waging ; a 
reason which doesn't involve a real change of mind or 
principle. The people have not lost their patriotism. 
They still cherish the Union and the Constitution. They 
still desire sincerely the overthrow of Davis and his wholo 
rebellious dynasty. But they had not counted the wholo 
cost beforehand of a long war. They find it especially 
hard to make allowance for the waste of war. They 
know they have furnished over and over again men and 
materials enough, under proper management, to have 
brought the war te a snccessful close. And the cost 
of esperience, of learning how to do things, the cost of 
schooling, they hadn't taken into account. That it would 
take from ten to thirty thousand lives, and unnumbered 
millions of money, to make a tost of the qualities of a 
major-general, and find out that he wouldn't answer the 
purpose ; that whole armies must be squandered in attack- 


ing tho enemy id wrong places and ways in order to find 

oot Ihe riglit ones, — tliese wei-u mattora they didn't con- 

Bider beforehand. That when the right way did appear. ' 

pluin us tho nose on a mail's foeo, their Ettipid official 

■ wrvants would often refuse to walk in it ; that, insteud 

I of sharpening the ax of vengeance against the pahlio 

P fce, they would ofttimea be grinding their own little pri- 

) Tate axes, be scheming for places and spoils in some 

I .coming political campaigQ, instead of carrying oat ener- 

V ^tieally the military campaign in hand, — these are 

■^dioughts that didn't enter into the innocent people's 

■aioddle. And now they have allowed themselves to get 

Ivito a sort of apparent opposition to those who are only 

I'llieir own rcprosontalivcs, and the cause which ia their 

Vown cause, and, in fact, as dear as ever to their hearts. 

■iThey have forgotten that an act of conscription, the en- 

^rceraont of which mast, from the very nature of the 

V'jpise, bo always unpopular, is, in fact, their own act, and 

Finatead of cordially acc[uiosciag in it, as, under the circuni- 

i, indispensable, are exercising their best ingeniiity 

K;j|a evading its provisions, and rendering it utterly trail ^ 

1.«ad void. Onr inveterate, ineurablo habit of boasting 

lias a.lB0 worked to tlie same end of wearying the pcoplu. 

That which has been promised over and over again sa 

oonildently, and not been performed, they will not bcUeve 

' that it is roally approaching bo near. 

.nnot believe that this present apparent apathy of 


the pooplo to tlie issae of a. war in wbicb tboy have sacri- 
ficed ao much is going to continue ; tLut tUey uro going 
to let the resulta of tlie struggle in which tbcy have 
poured oat eacb oceans of treasure and blood escape 
tbem ot the laat moment, when ona more good blow 
would finish the work. I do not beliovo the people real- 
ly want this same conscript law to fall through. They 
aro intelligent enough to know that it is now our only 
hope of getting sufficient troops soon enough for our pur- 
pose ; that it is essentially a, fair law, as fair as eau well 
be devised, erring only on the side of being too easy ; 
and especially that it m a law of our land, uod so must 
be executed if we care for those institutions we so vaunt. 
Each drafted man for himself has paid bis money or 
bought his substitute, thinking there would be bo many 
others who would go, that his alternative choice would 
make little difference. But now, seeing that this course 
is really deleating the whole object of the draft, and en- 
dangering so seriously the final issue of our cause ; see- 
ing that all are doing the same, and learning what is the 
character of these substitutes they are sending on, — £ 
really believe that this sort of thing will not be allowed 
to continue ; that, hereafter, men will see their duty differ- 
ently, and meet the crisis in a new spirit. I have seen 
only one real " drafted " man out of five hundred sub- 
stitntes ; and be was a right good fellow. All the men 
who meet the draft in their own person will be received 


by our boys in the kindest spirit, and honored as true 
patriots and worthy comrades. Those who come as sub- 
stitutes for others will be received and treated as they 
shall show themselves to deserve. 

There, this is prose I have been writing to-day ; so I'll 
make it short. 



THIS is one of the pleasanWst places for an army to 
lie off in, during the heated term, that can bo seloct- 
ed, — certainly in poor old, forsaken, ravaged Vir^nia. 
Beautiful groves of oak and pine l« shade us from the 
heat ; pleasant, grassy lawns on which to spread our 
blankets, and take an af^cr-dinner siesta ; no mosq^nitoes 
to buzz and sting and bile, as in the moat of your cities 
and watering-places, — a. truly simple Arcadian shepherd's 
life for ue to lead, except that our flocks und herds are 
rather litiiitcd, our crooks arc rifles and aworda, and our 
pipes, tobacco-pipea. It ia the huppy lot of your humble 
correspondent te have his regular boarding-place, quite 
like civil life ; going three times a day to get his meals at 
a real house, sitting down at an actual table 'ffitb a cloth 
on it, live young ladies sitting round it, a landlady to 
pour his tea, and positive board-bills to settle. He re- 
signs himself to civilized habits with his usual philosophi- 
cal fortitude, chats with the young ladies, and plays with 
the babies, throwing off the sternness of the warrior, and 
enjoyiag the ameoitios of social life as if ooraage, can- 

1MT. I 


id conscripts were not in all his thoughtB. There 
8 a sort of pleasant excitement In sitting down to a, tahle 
■c you have pretty good reason to think that yonr hosta 
rould bo glad (o put " pizen " in your coffee if they 
Ijflarcd ; in conversing iamiliarly with these ladies, whose 

■ Ifcrothers, husbands, and lovere aru sSinoting at you at 
larery opportunity thej cnn get; and having little after- 

p conversations with people, all of whose views, 
I irishos, and opinions are the antipodes of your own. 

I must say that these seoesh show a great deal of good 
I aense in their adverse circumstances. They take the 

■ qwilingof their goods with quietness and good nature; 

e their crops trodden down, their pigs and calves stolen, 
Veowa milked and hen-roosts robbed, hay carried off and 
P'Btables torn down, with more equanimity than I should 
I «xhihit, I fear, in similar circumstances. They have be- 
e used, in a measure, to the losses of war, and know, 
I that, where soldiers ore, there cbickens, dairies, and kiteh- 
I en gardens do not thrive. The women, unable to make 
I Any purchases in the dry-goods line, are cheerfiilly imi- 
I tating the old Revolutionary dames, and manufacturing 

■ 'their own dress materials with a good deal of euccess. 
\ Xhese families have been without tea, coffee, and sngai, 
I months together, and only feel reduced to estremities 

■ 'irfaen the salt at last gives out. Tbe negroes having all 
I Fon away, the ladies take to the househohl duties bravely : 
I haods that have never washed a dish, or made a " pone " 


of bread, go into those nnacouBtomed duties with energy, 
mix up the hoecakes, vieUl tho broom, and rub tbo ekin 
off their knuckles at the wash-board, with oommendalile 

But none can realize the actual meaning of war like 
these BordetvState people, whose homea have been right 
in the midst of anniea for nearly throo years, betweea the 
swaying tides of fiiend and foe ; their property stripped 
firet by the one side and tbeo by the other, the hail destroy- 
ing what the locusta didn't devoor ; and never lying 
down to sleep in security ; liable to momentary attacks 
from marauders and stragglers &om both armies; planting 
what they know not who shall gather, and sowing where 
another will most likely reap. They are tired of war. 
They will accept almost any settlement that shall re- 
establish peace. I believo this is a sentiment that is be- 
come universal through the South ; and, if we only hold 
on stflutly a little longer, we shall have a right peace with 
a restored Union. 


The Copperheads of the North are certwnly the most 
faithful, thorough-going, consistent, persevering, out-and- 
out, devoted, unwearying, undiscouraged sot of friends 
tliat any pack of black-hearted traitors were ever blessed 
withal. Their Southern lords and masters have despised 
them, spit upon them, abused them as worse than aboli- 




tionists. That's nothing, to be sure, but what they Lave 
always been used to. But seo how they are persoyeriag 
[pow, in the very diaintereatedness of malevolence, iJiroiigli 
possible obataclos, against their owo intereste, through 
the blood of their neighhore' and perhaps their own sons, 
■auto the threatoned ruin of their country, to the blackening 
■of their reputations, to the evideot prolongation of ail the 
svils of a torrihte war, to the atirrisg-np of Hots that en- 
danger their own property and the lives of their own 
households ! Through the lowest depths of shame, erime, 
and treason, through suspicion, imprisonment sometimes, 
and the indignation of all true patriots and good men al- 
ways, how faithful aro they to their Southern friends and 
their Southern institution ! They have no interest in the 
preservation of slavery. It will put no money in their 
pockets, add nothing to the glory of their names, nor the 
dignity of their lives ; yet out of a pure, unselfish devo- 
tion to that institution, they are wilUng not only to make 
martyrs of themaelvea, bnt to sacrifice all their oivil and 
political institutions, consent to the dismemberment of their 
country, give up all our prestige in the eyes of the nations, 
X indeed, consent to any thing else in the whole world, 
no matter how humiliating or how wicked. Rather than 
to continue this war to the overthrow of slavery, they 
■would consent either to lot the seceding States go away as 
B separate nation, now that they are on the point of being 
inquered, or stay in the Union on their own terms, no mat- 


ter how humiliating to ua. Bather than slop the war now, 
on the condition of Blavery's being iiholished, they would 
contimie it through other years of bloodshed, fighting oven 
their frien'ls the alaveholJcrs theraseh-es, if they should 
agree to ahandon the institution. If peace will bring the 
solvation of glavery, then peace at any price of shame and 
humiliation ; if war ia needful for its preservation, then 
war to any extent of blood and destruction. 


If there ia a hond-jlde martyr anywhere in these degen- 
erate times, surely it is the Copperhead, Nay, ho puts 
most martyrs to the blush ; for, while they sacrifice aU 
things for conscience' sake, he adds conscience itself to 
bis saerifiee. Other men have sacrificed wealth, position, 
reputation, to their principles : he has laid before his 
idol, wealth, position, reputation, principles, and all. 
Others eaorifioe to their country : he sacrifices his country. 
The South doesn't appreciate the esaltation of hia spirit. 
Tha rebehi dehberafely and treacherously attacked the 
Union in behalf of slavery because it was with them a 
praotieal institution, whose niggers, cotton-hales, and pro- 
fitfl were visible to their naked eye. They can't under- 
stand or believe in the sincerity of one who disinterestedly 
doeb the same aa and more than they do themselves, with- 
out any such temptation of profit. The South boldly 
stoked slavery on the issue of the war, and our fkeeutive 



has abolished it as a war measure ; and both eides ^mf^ 
abide by that issue as a foregone conclusion. But th^^^^ 
Copperhead, with no personal interest in the afBur, in ^ 
the great interests of oar common humanity, steps in and 
demands the re-establisbment of the beneficent institution, 
on indisputable guaranty, to be perpetual forevermore, as 
the sine qua non to any negotiation. However, this is too 
hot weather for political letter-writing, or any thing that 
verges on it ; and it was only my intense appreciation of the 
constancy of the Copperheads to their (want of) princi- 
ple that led me to try to put in a word for them, though 
not particularly in other respects their admirer. 


Auo. 30. 

I BELIEVE I haven't written you on a Sabbath day 
ia a long time. I feel like dropping you a few liuea 
to tell your readers what quiet, [ileasaut, religious Sab- 
baths wa have of late in this division. Our biigadier 
at present in command of tho diviaiou, Gen. Joshua X. 
Offeu of Philadolphia, until the war broke out, I believe, 
a prominent lawyer of that city, ia a man, more rare than 
I wish they were among generals, who beliovea in the Sab- 
bath, and appreuiattis the piivilege and the inestimable 
advantago of a divine service on that holy day. And be 
does not just say to his command that there will be preaoh- 
ing at such places, and they can go if they choose ; but he 
tells his soldiers that divine service is a most appropriate 
exercise for the Lord's Day, imd they will be especlfid to 
attend as at any other appointed duty; thus making u 
Sabbath service as important a matter as the regular Sun- 
ilay inspection. Inviting a regiment to his headquarters 
to service, ho just drops a polite note U.' tbo comiuandor, 
requesting him to bring his command, officers and men, 
except the needful guard details and the sick, at such an 




^^^H Voir, with their cbaplain to conduct the cx&reise. Tht 
^^^^1 tbej come, and in gnod order, decorously drcs^cl, 
^^^^B '^7 aticntitn. and get good, and enjo; it too, m I Icam 
^^^^P from Icstiroun; od crciy band. 
B At ten o'clock tliis lovely morning, he snmmoncd the 

whole division together in fi-ont of headquarters, 
^^^^ issuedappecial order tlie night previous; and we had a right 
^^^^b noble audience in line on Cbreo sides of a square, — three 
^^^B baods of music, all the drum corps, all the chaplains, and a 
^^^^ fight magnificent Union meeting as it waa ever ray privilege 
to aticnd. How the old oaion arches of our living temple 
rang when the psalms of praise were liiled up by such a mul- 
titude of miiuly voices! What Q mighty stillness, sacred and 
impressive, as that great assembly bowed in the attitude of 
^^^^ attention while the words of prayer rose up to God ! 
^^^^k What an inspiration ta him who addressed the words of 
^^^^p God's truth to that audience, in the multitude of orderly, 
1^^^^ atleutive listeners, veterans of many a battle-field, and who 
may go forth to another scene of danger and blood very 
likely before they are assembled ihns again 1 Talk about 
the majesty of Koman-Catbolic worship in grand old 
I arched cathedrals, or of the wonderful interest of the great 
camp-meetings which still abound in many parts of our 
land ; speak of any scenes or ceremonies of relipous 
worship that may have moat impressed you in all your 
I varied esperience ; I don't believe yon can recall one oo- 
on among them a'l of more touching solemnity or real 

grandeur tlian this dlvisioa of bronzod and v 
diai^, sitting as Utile cbildren at tbo foet of bim who spoke 
in their ears of a crucified and riaeti Saviour. Our pulpit 
was a platform of nuls crosaed by Boveral end-hoards from 
our big wagons ; our hyum-books were the admirable little 
collection, the "Soldier's Hymna;" and the bands played 
us the " Star-spangled Banner" and " America ;" and we 
remembered tho conquest of Sumler and Wagner reported 
in the yesterday's papers, and mingled a little of secular 
patriotism with our religious services in a way that might 
seem somewhat incongmous at home perhaps : but we 
made it a good and a glorious day, greatly enjoyed, I fully 
believe, by every officer and soldier present. Best of all 
was the good, earnest, reli^ous, and patriotic speech which 
our general, under the inspiration of the occasion, was 
"moved in spirit" to add to the aermon, and which 
showed him as eloquent a speaker and earnest a Christian 
as he is valiant a soldier. Wouldn't yon like t; have been 
with OB, dear reader? 

CHAPTER yvx viii 


I THINK I am die unfortonatest of correspondents. 
Becanse I Lmted at a little of the tmth in regard to 
the Chancellorsville battle, I was attacked on all sides; 
Taiioas unknown militaiy heroes stood, and, for aught I 
know, still stand ready — for I don't think that they are 
generaUy of the kind that would be likely to have perished 
in the battles subsequent — to chaUenge or shoot me on 
agbt ; scores of newspapers came down with fury upon 
my poor little articles, that I had scarcely hoped would 
even be read outside of my circle of personal acquaintances; 
and my sincerest friends chided me for my injudicious 
strictures. Yes : I even suspect that you yourself shook 
your sage editorial head over my imprudences, and doubted 
whether you shouldn't guillotine me with the scissors. 
You are glad you didn't, though, most amiable ** Repub- 
lican," aren't you? Then, again, because I described 
quite within the truth the brilliancy of our operations be- 
fore Williamsport, it was hinted to me by some kind 
f lends, that inferior officers need to be careful in their 
criticisms with reference to the great operations of the 


army and the conduct of their superiors. And now, 
agiuc, because I have indited several letters to you, 
inviting, as afFectionately and earnestly as I could, my 
Mends who are drafted to come out and join m in their 
own persons, instead of giving that privilego to anybody 
else, I have reason to fear that they think I meant aomc- 
thiug persona] ; and, moreover, because I didn't call tba 
New-York b-hoy and eye-smasher and orphau-asyium- 
burner, who has just come out hero as a substitute for 
the second or (liird time, a " gentlcmim and friend," after 
the style of Femandy and Horatio, ho also, I learn, ob- 
jects to my remarks; and he and his fellows will do for 
me, as soon as I desert so as to come within the sphere of 
their influence. Such are some of the trials of a poor 
newspaper correspondent. (There, I've put my foot in it 
again '. Ten to one you'll t^'"k I meant to call you a poor 

What shall I do, then'i Stop writing? Cau't be done. 
Force of haUt. Forced to carry a pocket inkhorn with 
me. Stop we to dinner pr to battle, as soou as the des- 
sert is over, or the enemy are driven back, out come pen 
and paper until my miud is relieved. No : that alternative 
is impossible. Will apologies be of any use ? Well, 
then, I think I've known many newspapers whose daily 
was poorer than your weekly. And my dear friend with 
the myopia, or the palpitatio cordis, or the cornucopia, 
(which implies fullness of pui'se, doesn't it?) I did not 


mean you in the few desoltory remarks I offered witih 
reference to the draft. It would be the hight of absurdity 
for a man of your social position, but especially of your 
delicate bodily condition, to feel bound to come out here as 
a soldier, merely because your name happened to be writ- 
ten on a scrap of paper that came out of a wheel. More- 
over, it would be an encouragement of the lottery system 
that a man of your moral character ought not to give. 
Also my friend from the sixth ward of the kingdom of 
Fernando the First, I disclaim any intention of dispara- 
^ng your character as a gentleman and a citizen, worthy to 
be called a "brother and friend '' of the Governor of New 
York. You doubtless know your own value as a soldier, 
and were compelled to get the paltry three hundred dollars 
about three times over, in order to obtain your full estima- 
tion. Allow me to solicit the honor of your service as a 
recruit in my — friend Smith's company. And in a gen- 
eral way, and once for all, if any member of the congrega- 
tion feels hit by any portion of my discourses, I request 
him to understand that that particular passage refers to 
somebody who staid at home from meeting on that day ; or 
that I am only preaching on the wickedness of sin in the 
abstract ; or, if personal at all in my allusions, am only 
aiming at people a great way off, firing over their heads, 
at very long range, entirely outside the circulation of 



1 C0NDDCT8 i 


, eonsideriiblG basia of troth in a very 
erroneous and ridiculous eomraunieation from ait 
American correspondent of one of the London papers, 
wliich I was reading, a few days Binoe, with aliout equal 
proportions of Indignation and amosement. The point 
touched upon was our national feeling of prido at the vast 
scale on which we conduct operations, whether for good 
or for evil. It ia true, no douhf, that Brother Jonathan 
doea ehuoklo inwardly, oven in the midst of bis niisfor- 
bxaes and ruin and bloodshed, over the bigness of the 
very row that has been kicked up in his household. As 
he has the "greatest country in all creation," the tallest 
mountains, longest rivers, largest lakes, and most extensive 
coal-veins ; as he has built the most miles of railroad, in- 
vented the greatest variety of notions, printed the most 
newspapers, estabUshed the most common schools ; and, in- 
deed, is infinitely ahead of the other benighted nations 
and races of mankind in education, civilization, and reli- 
gion, in all the institutions of government, and the arts 
Rod comforts of social life : so, of course, getting into 

nvNir BsowKx in tbs Asarr. 

f difBcullies, ho finds a grim consolaUon in the thought that 
I they are lie loiigbest diffictiltics tba.t ever oiition yet foil 
L''iiito, If he hiLS a rebelliou to cnuh, it is somo comfort to 
f!know that it is a rebelUoD that extends over a quarter of 
a continent, and mateiiaUj afiecta the interests of evei^ 
f nation under heaven. If he must turn hie attention to 
Itrar, he glories in the thonght that it is being carried on 
a lie gmodest scale that the world hfc hitherto seen ; 
I that he fires the biggeitt guns, brings into the field the 
most formidable armies, and feeds them with the largest 
I piles of hard-bread and barrola of beof that mortal oon- 
tractors ever yet bargained l« furnish. Other nations 
have contracted, in the course of uenturies, their littlo 
public debts, or gone into bankraptcy, perhaps, for a few 
hundred millions : he walks right up umoag the billiODS 
in no time at all, and will soon be carrying on his broad 
shoolders a burden that would crush half a dozen ordinaiy 
nations. Other nalions are slowly inweasiag their navies 
year by year, and trying occasional experiments with metal- 
lic sheathing aud various new devices of attack and defense: 
he ia every month ordering iron-elads by the score, and 
gunboats by the bandred, and increasiog hb dock of rams 
,3 if they were nothing but common merinoes. Other 
powers think they do well if they blockade two or three 
or half a dozen ports : he employs a small part of his 
[ navy in maintaining a blockade four thousand miles Long, 
L .but ooonpiea its ebiaf strength in grand naval expeditions, , 

two or tluee at a time, of a hondred or two sail apiece, 
to knock to piccea harbor defenses. 

England and France are mighty nations, the Toioe of 
either onu of which wouid be decisive as to the sueoesa or 
ruin of any ordinary government. Jonathan very coolly 
contflDQplatea the prohabihf.y of hoth together recognizing 
the independence of hia revoked States, and talks with 
the utmost composure of facing tho world in arms to 
maintain the integrity and durability of tho institutions 
lie has founded, to prove tho vast supoiiority of the form 
of government he has so long vaunted. And notwith- 
standing the vanity and foolishnosa of Jonathan's compla- 
cent thoughts, notwithstanding the utter absurdity, if you 
will, of tlie young giant's notions, the world is yet protty 
well persuaded, that, if the worst comes to worst, this 
big talk is ready to be followed up with hig action. It 
may be the hight of insanity, perhaps, to think that he 
could make headway against tho navies of Albion, the 
lemons of Louis Napoleon, and perhaps the added power 
of the Spanish Don, in connection with tho gigantic Re- 
bellion raging all the while at home ; hut the magnates 
of those nations are well aware, that, if need should come. 
Cousin Jonathan would just eject a large mouthful of 
saliva, put a fresh quid in his other cheek, take a new 
hiteh in his pantaloons, and — try; and that such a 
ti-iiil would convulse the world. It may be that this up- 
start can have his unbearable braggadocio thrashed out 




of him ; bat tbose who andertako tbat little bnsineBs are 
to find it no boys' play on their hands. So, doubtless, 
uotwithatanding al! tho raraora nf Frencb recognition, the 
shrewd Nephew of bis Uucle will be aatiafied if he can 
permitted to play out bis little play of imperial pup- 
.j»t-show in Mcsico, with no interference of Yankee 
i»ctors ; and " Perfide Albion" too, with the commerce 
of tho world now in her bands, will hesitate long before 
she takes tho stop wbieb will let loose an innumerable 
oloud of privateers upon her ships, to say nothing of the 
■delicate complicationa of the Canadian question. 

Jonathan will be left to ruin himself with bis own 
family quarrels at his leisure. And, it must bo confessed, 
he is going ahead on that path with tremendous rapidity. 
In tho mighty rush of events, in the clash of conflicting 
arms, we are strangely forgetfUl of the overwhelming 
burdens and responsibilities we are iucarring, and of the 
feet that we can not go on so long. One of our gallant 

" We c; 

e waging for fifty years." ■ I hope and believe 

8 much more of a soldier than statesman ; fbr surely 

ft more preposterous statement was never made. Bat, to 

1 mind that slops for a moment to reflect, the whole 

our aifiiirs shows us the need of finishing up 

pftis war with a speedy and united effort. The country 

, oh I how weary of tho bloodshed and sufiering and 

f the war I You are weary of it at home : we are 


more weary of it hore in the field. We eliaLI very sooa 
iave actnaOy accamulated a debt greater tban even all 
the vast resources of the whole country ; a,nd depreciation 
and bankruptcy must then foilow. I'here L? a Umit to 
our right to mortgage the resources of our posterity, even 
if we could do so ; and so every consideration urges ua 
to push on, and make a finish of thia Bebellion this very 
autumn if it may be. Make the Anny of the Potomac 
up to a hundred thousand men within a month, lead as 
on judiciously against Lee, and, with God's blessing, we'll 
ruin him, take Richmond, and finish the war (all the 
beavy work of it) before winter closes in upon us. Great 
is Jonathan ! 


I see it is settled on all bauds that the taking of Charles- 
ton is only a question of time : a question of a lifetime I 
presume is meant. I think it is very fortunate for the pros- 
pect of Gen. Gillmore that he is a young man. I see 
some surprise is manifested that Fort Sumter holds out so 
bug against such repeated, severe, and poraeveriug at- 
tacks. Do you know my theory on the subject? Why, 
it is as plain as daylight. All engineers now acknowledge 
that a aand-battcry or earthwork is strooger than a fort 
of masonry. Well, Gillmore baa knocked Fort Sumter, 
with his mammoth shells, from a regular work of masonry 
back into its ori^al clay and dust ; made an earthwork of 


'1^ in ^ort ; aod, of course, it is stronger than ever : and 
if he continues to pitch his Ihree-handrod-paunder sheila 
into it till it is perfectly impregnable, whom will he have 
to blamo but his own fooUsh self? Like the giant Antse- 
the more jou knock it down, the a 

' Old Rosy," loo, has ran his knife across a bone 80m«- 
iw in cutting the Ecbcllion in two, and dulled the edge 
little. Lot ua hope he will find the joint yet the neit 
time he tries, and matte a clean cut across the spinal mar- 
row between the vetflbras. Wo hear that our eleventh and 
twslitii corps have gone to help him. It is a very safe 
thing to do, sending them, our boys thint ; for 
hold the eleventh as about cciual to another corps for 
the enemy ; and so the twolflh, being a very reliable corps, 
would juet about balance it. If tliis consideration should 
Beem to lessen their value aa a re-enforcement to RosecrauB, 
on the other hand, it would lessen, to an equal extent, onr 
danger in sparing them firom the Army of the Potomac. 
Beautiful is the great principle of compensation ! 

Taming our critical glanco to the South-west, we (that 
it, not the editorial " we," bat I and another growler, cor- 
poral in my company, one of the funniest spocimens of 
C]:agge rating, complaining, unreasonable humanity that 
you ever saw) don't wonder that die vessels of Franklin's 

Ltapeditiou stuck fast in the S 

I, and 

were cap- 

ped. The general that " co-operated '' with Bomsido 


in such fashion as he did at Fredericksburg last Decem- 
ber would be enough to make any eight-feet boats draw 
nine feet of water at the very least. That's our opinion. 
But the corporal is here called away to drill " an awkward 
squad," muttering, that, if he was to attend his wife's 
funeral at three o'clock, he supposes he would have to 
keep on his equipments, and drill in the manual of arms 
up to two o'clock and three-quarters. So I can continue 
my critical observations no longer, not having a sufficient 
support to Ml back upon. 



Cedab Mountain, near the Rapidan, Va., ) 

Sept. 17, 1863. J 

THE Anny of the Potomac is again on the move. 
Our little season of rest has passed ; and an earnest, 
active, hard, wearisome campaign has opened again upon 
us. Our ** summer is ended " and our ** harvest " pretty 
much * * past, ' ' I suppose. This latter is a figurative expres- 
sion, and refers, of course, to the conscripts and substitutes 
we have been gathering in with so much pains from every 
corner of our land. A mighty big lot of ground we've 
gleaned over for a pretty small pile of grain, and not a 
few tares in it at that ; and it will take a good deal of 
threshing to get it clean. But we ought to be thankful 
that our ranks are somewhat re-enforced ; and if our num- 
bers are few at best, compared with the great, strong regi- 
ment of a year ago, yet the most of those who do still rally 
round our banners are tried and proved men, who have 
confidence in each other, and who can be depended on for 
soldiers' manful duty under all circumstances. The weak, 
the skulks, and the cowards, are, to speak generally, 




weeded out. Sickness is comparatively a 
in OUT ranks, save among the new moo; and the hardships 
of tho campaign Fall upon those whose shoulders are broad 
to hear them. 

If we could only hope to have a little common sense used 
once in a while by any of our generals in marching the 
men, the terrible waste of life and strength in oat previous 
campaigns might be, one-half of it, avoided iu tho com- 
ing one. But we have learned that it is tflo much to hope 
for. Experience brings little wisdom in this respeotj and I 
suppose the raea will still be marched to death as they have 
been always before, and more men be expended in getting 
to the fields of battle than by the slaughter on those fields. 
We shall still be trotted along at the fastest pace in the 
hottest part of tho day ; still stop at tho worst places for 
camping-ground ood for water that can bo selected in a 
barren countty ; Elill never know, when we stop for rest, 
whether there will be time for making coffee, or it must be 
spilled on the ground when half heated ; still be called 
out into line, in utmost haste, in tho morning at five, 
and then wait, with knapsacks and equipments on, till ten 
before actually moving. I have never known but one 
general of brigade, division, or corps, who apparently took 
any pains whatever, or bestowed a thought even, upoa 
these matters, whereon the comfort of the soldiers so much 
depeods. And yet a single word passed along the lines to 
teU the men that they will have time to get water, make 


coffee and lunch ; a veiy little care to halt at regular intep- 
vals, and to select the best places; a little thought to 
slacken the pace in the heat of the day ; to remember how 
much faster the rear of a long column have to march, 
where there are occasional obstructions, than the front of 
the same; a very little consideration for the comfort of the 
men, — would make such a difference, would get men over 
a long, hard march so much more easily, would save so 
much straggling, so many sun-strokes, such a number of 
precious lives, that I wonder some of our generals, men 
who do really to my own knowledge care for their men, 
do not think of these things. 

A year ago to-day, we were getting our initiation to bat- 
tie-scenes on the bloody field of Antietam. We didn't 
know this morning but wo might celebrate our anniver- 
sary by a similar fight ; but exactly what we are doing in 
this movement, and what our plans are, Gren. Meade 
knows better than I do. Perhaps you have heard from 
him by this time : uU we know is that we are near the 
enemy, and that the little old second corps is in the front. 
They don't say a great deal about us in the papers ; but 
they know whom they can depend upon in the field ; and 
there is always a place of honor and responsibility and 
danger for tl e second. 


a shookinq execution. 

Sept. 3]. 

Last Friday, tliis drrimon was drawn out to witness 
a most painfol scene ; encb a one as ead necessity has 
made only too eonmion in tbe anny of late, — the execution 
of two deserters, substitutes, from tbc 14tb Connecticut 
Yolunteers, Elliot and Eastman by name. Tbe necessity 
of this thing boa been evident enough from the first mo- 
ment we saw tbe style of recniita tbe draft was sending on 
to US. Its salutaty efibct is evident enough in the almost 
endre cessation of desertion ^nce it has been generally 
understood through tbe army that tbe death-penalty was 
sure to bo inflicted. It is almost laughable to see the 
snsiety with which the stragglei-s from the various rc^- 
ments have been nashing back to their commands within 
the last few days, and the eagerness with which they put 
in dieir excuses. But there were some unnecessarily 
revolting circumstances connected with tbe execution of this 
sentence, that make it a scene to be put out of one's mind 
and forgotten as soon ss possible. The poor boys were 
not informed of the fate that awaited them, did not know 
that their sentence was a faful one, till twelve o'clock of 
the very Friday on which they were to be " shot to death " 
before tbe bour of four, p.m. I Who was responsible for 
this cruel neglect or intentional withholding of the Ecntence, 
I can not say; but tbe result of tbe eoutt-niortial had been 
published more than a week. Then tbe ammunition of 




firing party (new ammunition, just served out, and 
,»uch as we are eipeefed to use in the approaching, per- 
^fcips most imporfant, battles of tho war) was so poor in 
ility, that only three out of sixteen guna went off at all. 
men were onljf wounded j one of them, I think, not 
touubed ; and bo slid off the coffin on which he sat, 
his knees, slipped the handkerchief off hia eyes, ahi 
etarcd Ml in the face the men who came up singly, and 
put the muiizle of their guuB to his head, and — BQopped 
caps at hioi. And the provost-marshal in charge had to 
conio up with liis revolver to put the poor fellows out of 
their misery ; and then more guna were loaded, and more 
poor ammunition oxperiraontGd upon, and the sentence 
finally fully esecutcd, but made into such a scene of 
bntcheiy, that all eyes were turned away from it, and all 
hearts shocked by it. I would not have said a word in de- 
scription bttt in the hope, that, if such things are to he done, 
in future the arrangements may be perfected beforehand 
so as to avoid a like bungling. Still no blame can be laid 
in this instance, that I am aware of, upon the humane and 
gentlemanly officer who bad the painful duty in charge. 
He could not be supposed to know thitt Uncle Sam's 
agents were furaisbing us ammunition whereof not five 
cartridges in a hundred would go off. He eupposed that 
the Government departmeata whoso business it is, and Gov- 
ernment inspectors, who, at large salaries, in sa& places, 
pass upon all our supplies, would see to it that at least 

wu wure furnished with powder and ball and pcruus 
caps, a. majority of which would go off at Bomo rate. 

Enough of this painful sahject. I want to say a word 
about a moat iinportant matter concerning the efficiency of 
tliti army, and one nearly every reader of your columns, 
and every person in tho community, can do something to 
remedy, Prohahly there is not a regiment in the field 
that has been out as long as a year, but has its mimhera 
reduced at least one-half, and aomo of them two-thirds or 
even three-fourths. Of eouraa this loss can not he all n 
legitimate loss, neither is it very largely a losa by actual, 
bare-faced desertion. Very much the larger part are ab- 
sentees on the plea of sickness or wounds. In our corpg 
at the present time, and notirith standing our recent accc^ 
sions, tho number of " absent sick " borne upon our rolls 
is very nearly equal to, and, if I mistake cot, a trifle more 
th un , the whole number present for duty in any capacity ! 
And I presume the same is ttae of nearly cveiy other 
' corps; so that, for this army in tho field of gay a hun- 
dred thousand men, tbcro is another army of a hundred 
thonsand men scattered over the country, costing the 
people an equal, if not a greater sum, and doing no ser- 
vice to our cause. Of this vast number, I think 'I have 
good grounds for saying that one-half, I can not possibly be 
exaggerating when I say one-third, or more than thirty 


OMI of A bnndred iboosaud, are alik to be witli 

Mi^ to be with 09, doing Gorvice ia the field. 

BOW b> bo m diing cxpiicted, that those who are 
«it to the hospit^ eick, even slightly and 
tenponrily so, are lost to the Kgiment for the rest of 
tlte var in nine cases oat of ten. Men are fiirlougbcd 
with the gRAt«Et cafe tmia onr huspibils, and then ataj at 
bofue, sending oeiuficales &om their easily persuaded fami- 
ly physii-ium for the estension of their furlougbs, or even 
Etajiog without any extenfion ; and the hospitals fujl to 
lepoit ibem to their commands us deserteiB. GIreai, nnm- 
heris of men conTalesccnt aio detailed for a thousand and 
one purposes about the hospiteb, uod by provost-marshals 
for guards and the like, till, as a matter of fact, scarcely 
aaj of them rejoin their companies. In utany of our reg^ 
many as fifty men are detailed fixim each as 
distant hospCals. Now, there are thousands of 
iTilians, thousands of women, throughout the North, who 
supply the demand for nursei! in their own Stales 

1, without keeping thousands of able-bodied sol- 
diers trom duty in the field to attend to such thtogs. The 
surgeons and those in charge of hospitals are much in 
fiiult for the permissiou of such things. Every citizen 
knowing of a soldier able to return to duty, and not taking 
measures to havo liim sent back, is failing of hts duty to 
his country. All proTOst-marsbals and their asaistaote, who 
fell to take the needful measures to send back all these 


loose men lo their duty, are wanting to the first obUgations 
of their office. 

I hear of men walking the streets of our -rillages in 
Connecticut and Mossachasetts, and even at work on their 
ferms and in their shops, who helong to the United States, 
and will be back to their companies by and by with fiome 
sort of fixed-up certificates, and draw their hack pay, and 
then, staying in the service a few weeks, wUl again fail in 

their health, get sent to . 

a hospital, 

and try tht 


again. I know many i 

ncn who 

have never 


1 in a 

battle, nor done a montl 

I'a service. 

who have 

drawn one 

and two years' pay tVom Uncle Sat 

a, and an) s 


I good 

and regular standing. 

These me 

n who have hee 

n dia- 

charged for disability oi 

■ over-age. 

and who 

are i; 


unfit for soldiers, are coming out again as aubstitutoa for 
drafted men. I can not believe that the exempting hoards, 
who find such a large proportion of drained men unfit for 
military duty, say from asty to ninety per cent, are, in all 
cases, eq^ually rigid in their examination of Buhstitntcs. I 
have just heard of one old man, sixty-four years of age, 
who was a great object of pity for a time in the company 
I commanded, and who was finally discharged for disabili- 
ty, afiier lingering along, and doing no duty for many 
months, now coming out here again as good as new as a 
nibstitnto, with his cash in bis pocket. Wkether he dyed 
his hair and whiskers to pass the board, as I understand 
he did before, I know not ; bat I do know that he can 


never do a month's duty again as a soldier. And this 
is only one of many instances coming within my own 
knowledge. Let us all use every possible effort to get 
into the field at once all those who are fit to do duty, and 
who really belong to Uncle Sam ; and we shall have no 
occasion to send on men whose fitness for military duty is 
doubtful, no need to lament the failure of the drafb, and 
no lack of men to finish up successfully this fall cam- 

We are now moving on, or doubtless about to do so, 
with our eight-days' rations on our backs, to press Lee 
from the North ; while Bumside and Rosecrans push the 
Confederacy from the South-west, and Grillmore and Dahl- 
gren finish up their beautiful and scientific problem before 
and over the City of the Palmettoes. 

On Picket, sbab tbe Rapidab, Oi^C. 3. 

ILBAEN every day something new ; and it is only by 
Nature's beautiful compensating principle of forgetr 
ting tbat I am saved from a fatal pressure on the brain. 
Tou understand, doubtless, tie working of this great theo- 
ry of mental activity. We are always learning, always 
forgetting j and it all depends on the selection whether we 
become wise or otherwise. Gain good, and lose evil ; save 
the wheat, and blow away the chaff; get a little sense, and 
forget a little nonsense, every day (and it doesn't make so 
much difference about the rapidity or slowness of the pro- 
cess), — you are in a good way, and just as certain of be- 
coming a prodigy of wisdom and virtue at length as I am 
of becoming senior major-genera] of the United-States Vol- 
unteers if I remain in the service long enough. On the 
whole, I think my fort« lies in forgetting. Not for ten thon- 
sand worlds woald 1 have forced back upon my mind the 
vast, unspeakable load of mbbish, wickedness, and folly, 
that this happy faculty has enabled me to throw off. People 
that don't forget, or that forget unvrisely, making a. bad 
selection, go mad, got into insane asylums, commit suicide 
or beoome criminals, committing moral suicide, or merely 



Hb and imbecile, getting into a second and worse 
chililbood. Bat. asiJe from tlio forgetting oat and out of 
tbe useless and unpleasant things, there is the faculty 
of fiirgetling the unpleasant part of disagreeahlo things, 
■nd transforming that which was cstremely painful at the 
time into a pOMlively agrcooble memory. For instance, 
it would rcq^uire a very powerful imagination to make a 
man actually enjoy, at the time, being out on picket in die 
forty-eight hours without shelter or fire, with very 
little save hard-tack to eat, and a very bad lookout for 
getting any sleep at all. On the contrary, it seemed a 
Tery rational remark that one of my green substitatea 
made, looking up into the sky yesterday morning, to the 
iflffeet that there was prospect of such dirty weather, that 
probably we wouldn't be able to go out picketing till (he 
over. Poor fellow ! he has found out hia mis- 
take by this time, I reckon ; for I see him yonder on his 
post now shivering and drijiping under hia rubber blanket, 
and carrying his gun at the queerest "right-shoulder 
shift " that you ever saw at a miUtia muster. But when, 
fifty years hence, I shoulder my cane to rehearse to toy 
grandchildren the wonderful campaigns of the great war 
■ of the Eebellion, doubtless I shall make very light of such 
Kttle privations, and laugh at the degeneracy of my effiim- 
inate descendants who think there is any thing wonderful 
ID enduring such hardships. 

Bang 1 goes a gun close on oar left to interi-upt my 


jhilosophical speculations. "Steady, boya! Spring to 
arms, and be on the alert, whilo I go out nnd see wliat'a 
up. I don't believe it is an attack ; for there are the 
enemy's two cavalry pickets on yonder hill aa quiet as 
ever." Sure enough, on moving down cautiously, pistol 
in band, to my left post, I found the sentinot, mouth and 
eyes wide open, staring in amazement at his still smoking 
gun ; while hia comradea, over whose beads the bullet bad 
whistled, were poking aJl manner of fun at him. " Sure 
and I was but cbanging ibe cratur from one sboulder to 
the other to aise rac a bit ; and sbe went off herself with 
the divil a touch of my linger." He bad bis gun at a 
nill cock, I suppose, inatead of a balf cock, and bo 
knocked it off in one of bis clumsy movements. I need 
not say be was another of our new men. 

But I am glad to bo able to tell you that I am pleas- 
antly disappointed in tbe behavior of tbcse new recruits, 
taken as a whole. There are some rough characters among 
them, and some State-prison birds; but the larger part of 
those that are left (_tbc worst deaert«d in tbe first few 
days) are doing their duty witb a good will, and will 
make good soldiers, I have forty-five of tbem in my com- 
pany, and am getting to bo right proud of their drill and 
general appearance. There are just enough scapegraces 
in the regiment to make tbe tenure of property very inse- 
cure. Watches, money, knives, shirts, rations, guns, 
every speciee of mortal property tiiat is capble of being 



^^^^ out t 

Lranaferred, gets conveyed anay nilh more coleritj anil 
skill thiin legalily. You don't know when you lie dttwB^ 
at night but that your shelter-tent roof will be stolen from. 
over your head before morning, or tlie miniature of your 
lady-love from out your breast-pocket. Well, thia ia pro- j 
duetive of one good effiict, — it keeps ns reminded of the 
.tnuisitorinegB of all earthly things. 

Speaking of stealing, I should like to make tiie ao- 
intaneeof that raanwhohaa stolen my "Eepublican" 
out of the mail for the last three monlliB. He has mani- 
fested a peraevemnoe and thoroughness of performance 
about the work in hand worthy of a better cause. He has 
never left me a single number since he conjinenccd his 
process of abstraction. Still, dear " Republican," though 
I see not your friendly lace, 1 continue to remember you 
with affeclion, and wish you all sorts of prosperity. 

I don't know what we are doing here array-wise, — 
except maintaining a long line of pickets along the Bapid 
Anne; haven't seen a newapper for four days, and 
only know that the world goes round from taking an ocea- 
fjonal observation of llie sun. Yours in a state of be- 
nighted (perhaps blissfnl) ignorance. 

P. 8. — Can't you send a copy of the " Eepublican " 
to Homehody olso in my vicinity, and let me steal it, in 
accordance with the mililaty lex talionis f 


An army is a big thiag ; and it takes a great many 
eatablea, and not a few drinkablea, to carry it along. 
H&YO you any idea how many barrels of " connnissary " 
(that's a gentle eapheinism for whisky) it takes per week 
to run the macLine ? I don't know exactly ; but I do 
know that it would be better to Uncle Sam than one han- 
dred thousand yolunteers to hia anny, if be would shut 
off entirely and absolutely the supply of intoxicating 
liquors from ofSecra and men, from surgeons, hospitals, 
and every thing and everybody connected with the army. 
On what ground is the present vast supply of whisky fur- 
nished ? is it that an occa^onal ratioii may be issued to 
the soldiers when returning from picket, or after an ex- 
hausting march ? Why, there hasn't been a whisky-ration 
isaned to a single regiment la my knowledge for many a 
month ; and I am certamly within the truth when I say 
that not ten a year are issued to the troops on an aver- 
age. It is as good as a total-abstinence society to be a 
private in the army. Cause why ? The use of liquor 
has BO increased among the officers, that none is now lefl 
over (o be Issued to the men ! Three gallons a week is 
about the present usual allowance of a brigadier-general, 
and inferior officers in proportion. A major-general who 
is Ubera] and reasonably hospitable is espected to spend at 
least bis pay in various liquors. Every time every general 



staff-officer calk on a comrade, the bottle is expected to 
be produced. Evetj time an officer is promoted, lie 
ia expected to "wet his commisaion." JErerj oceaaon 
c^ a Bword or horse presentation is unproved for & big 
drunk all round. It is Dot coDsidered jet quite repu- 
table (or an officer to bo helplessly or crazily drank 
actually engaged on eome special duty, such aa 
of the picket, or jiidge-adTocale of a eourt-raartifll ; 
bnt at other times it is uotiiing a^iust him, and, even if 
I snch a case, it is rather his misfortune than hia 
&nlt. Poor fellow ! 

In short, the arniy is getting badly demoralized as to 
habits of teroperanee ; and hundreds of young men who 
came out with fair characters and most correct habits will 
go home, if they go at all, poor bloatod inebriates, and 
led into their evil habits, I am sorry to say, too often by 
bad esaraplo of those mho are older and of iiigher rank 
they. We no lougor wonder, as we used to do at the 
ming of the war, that battles are lost aud expeditions 
ya account of the drunkenness of those who are in 
/command ; but the rather we thank Ood, in gratefiil won- 
L any undertaking gets successfully through, un- 
ined by such drawbacks. 

Oh, if the President and War Department would but 
he nerve to issue a prohibition of all intoxicating 
in the army on any pretense whatever 1 It would 
aore moral courage than to issue an Emancipatioa 



Proclamation ; and the suspension of this alcoholic habeas 
corptig would be a deal tougher joh, and attended with 
more odium, than the Buspension of tlio legal process of 
that name : hut then it is alao a more neceasary act, and 
lately to be more henefioiol to thii country. It can be done. 
Liquor is kept from the privates of the army, on the whole, 
with almost perfect saceess. It does more injury among 
the officers tlian it could do among the men. Father 
Abraham ! if yon will set your honest foot down on this 
point, and save the ofBeera of your Union army, I, I}uim 
Browne, will take it upon mo, " humble individual that I 
am," less than the least of your military eervanta, to war- 
rant you a victory over the enoaiy, invariably, whenever 
the odds against us are not very great indeed ; and so will 
your petitioner against the deadly ruia-harrel, as misdirect- 
ing tlie gun-barrel, ever pray. 


On Picket, neak Bnu. Run, Out. IF. 
^E have been hating some more " Btrategy," 
10 more anfol marching, and a small sprink- 
ling of lively fighling of late, in the Army of the Potomao. 
Last Saturday week, being near Cnlpeper Court House, 
we (the eeeond corps) made a circular movement to the 
front and right, of a down or fifteen miles, to see if there 
was any enemy there, and encamped in the nun about five 
miles from the camp we left in the morning. A little after 
midnight, we wore roused out of our profound slumbers 
(I should have said that we were kept up nearly all the 
previous night drawing eight-days' rations and eiity 
rounds of amrannitioc), and drawn out into lino ready for 
a march. Wo thus remained with knapsacks on, Ehiver- 
ing in a raw October night, till six, a.m., when we began 
to move. Probably some strale^ more skillful than my- 
self can toll the object of this night performanco. At six 
we moved, and made a long and hard day's march of 
some eighteen miles back across the Bjippahannock, and 
enoBinped this dde of Bealton Station at four and a half, 



P.M. On Monday, feeling that wc hsiln't done op the 
other sde of the Rappahannock sufficiently brown, we 
marched back lo Rappahannock Station, recroseed the 
river, and, after advaooiag two or three nii!es by the flank, 
spread out into a, line of battle, or rather about eix lines, 
extending say three-quarters of a mile each side of the 
road, and advanced tbrougii wooda and over fences, acrosB 
ditches and hedgeSiiip hill and down dale; tangling our 
legs alternately in high grass and deep mud; tumbling, 
Btaggering, and trudging along; stopping evory few ralnut&s 
to dress our lines; tJll about six, p.m., not scaring up any 
tiling more formidable than a few rabbits (I had a rabbit- 
Blfiw for supper), we halted, cooked onr supper with about 
four miles of fence-rails, and retired lo rest. 

Jnst in the middle of our first alumbor, our intelligent 
general having learned, that, while we were performing 
these varioua strategic erolutiona in the front, the enemy 
had quietly passed round our flank, and was nearly be- 
tween us and Washington, — at midnight, our tired boya 
were started out again, and pushed as rapidly as possible 
back to the Rappahaunock, crossing it the fourth time within 
a few weeks, and right on along the lino of the road, piist 
one station after another, till we had made about twenty-five 
miles at seven, p.m., and bivouacked in a beautiful grove 
not far from Warrenton Junction. The boya' feet were blis- 
tered, and legs chafed, and their shoulders ached ; and thoy 
were pretty effectually uaed up. The rations also had be- 


gun to ron short; but the improvident ones begged of th^ 
provident, and some sort of a supper waa obtained, and. 
the arnij rested. At four, a.m., we were roused again, and 
at a little after five wore on the march. Scarcely were we 
on the road, when the enemy's cavalry attacked os on both 
flanks, and a battery or two opened on us : but, as their 
attack WHS not in great force, we soon put them to the 
right about, charged upon their battery, and came near 
capturing it ; hut, by putting their horses to a'gallop, they 
Bueceeded in getting off, and we resumed our march, with 
BkinoisborB on each flank. 


About foar, p.m., os we were marching along by 
the railroad near Briatow's Station, minding our own busi- 
ness, and expecting everybody else to mind theirs, a very 
lively and spirited attack of cavalry, artillery, and infantry, 
was opened upon us across the track very suddenly. It 
would have done your heart good to aee how coolly the 
old Second took it, facing to the front (wo wore marching 
by the right flank, as is usual), and charging across the 
railroad U> repel the attack. The Issue wasn't In doubt 
for an instant. Their fire cut down a good many of our 
brave boys at first (five out of my company) ; but they 
couldn't hold their ground for a moment. Across a deep 
cut in the railroad, into the thick pines, and over a burned 
field, oar boys double^uioke J ; and the enemy double- 


Ij qiu(£ed before them, ahandoned a battery and Home five 
Londred prisonera to us, and made themselves genernllj 
scarce. We returned to the lino of the road, and held it 
until ten, p.m. ; when we moved again (we were the rear- 
goatd of the army, and, of course, coald not remain to 
hold the position) ; marched aU night; forded Bull-Run 
creek, two and a half feet deep, just before daybreak ; and 
lay down on the grass, in the rain, for a few hours' sleep 
after our fatigues and danger. 

Later in the day, wo got into a more regular camp ; and, 
though expecting to move at any moment, we have re- 
mained holding this strong position, and skirmishing a 
good deal every day, with the enemy in our front. Just 
as I am writing, I see our cavalry, who have passed over 
the mn on a puntoon-bridge (we infantry had to wado it), 
charging the rebels, and driving them into tho woods about 
a mile ahead of us. They say soldiers always have a 
grievance : we have two, — eleven days' rations just served 
out, and sixty rounds of ammunition. Forty rounds ia 
all that a soldier ought, or indeed can bo made, to carry. 
That fills bis eartridg&-box ; and the rest ia either spoiled 
in his pocket, or thrown at once away, to he replaced again 
,by ordor in a day or two. More ia thus actually wasted 
than is o.':pended in battle, as can be proved by the reports 
of the ordnance-officers. And for tho rations, three days' 
are all tho haveraicks will bold, sis as much as any emer- 
j ought to compel men to carry, and eleven — why, 


yon might as well issae the whole three-years' proy- 
ender at once, and have done mth it. It is half of it 
wasted, and then the last days the men are starved ; and, 
about three days before the time is np, Gk)yemment is 
obliged, in spite of itself, to issne some more : so nothing 
is gained, and a great deal lost by it every way. Eight 
days' rations have never been made, and never can be 
made, when issued all at once, and on a march, to last the 
men the full time ; and yet we have now eleven days' on 
hand : and I suppose the same cruel stupidity will be 
persisted in to the end, angering and imbittering the men, 
and accomplishing no good whatever. We hear various 
rumors of Lee's advancing into Maryland,' &o. ; but 
know not much of the truth of them. 

Segohd Abmy Cobps, Va., Oct. 21. 

IF you have any bnsineas in the transportation line, or 
any thing connected therowitb, let me soliuit your cus- 
tom for our 

psOMPTNESS AND nispATca ! 
Meada and Lee's Througu Express, weekly line, be- 
tween Alesaadria and Culpeper. ConnectionH with princi- 
pal pointa eorth and south (especially the Old Capitol and 
the Libhy Prison). 

The sabsoribera having completed their arrangementB, 
and gotten their line into running order, will hereafter, 
until further notice, run their machines, the "Army of the 
Potomac " and "Army of Northern Virginia," every 
week through from Culpeper, Va., to Alexandria, Va., 
and vice versd, giving their personal attention to the 
running of each train ; Lee preceding Meado at a proper 
interval on the onttrains, and Meade preceding Lee with 
ho in-trains. The perfect familiarity 


of these old stagers witli the whole route in question, and 
the frequency with which they have traversed it, enable 
them to calculate with perfect accuracy the time of arrival 
at tlie indicated points. Having gotten up all their loco- 
motives and rolling-stock regardless of expense, and put- 
ting them through night and day alike, they are enabled 
to disregard the ordinary drawbacks of weather, state of 
roads, &c., as those who do a smaller business cannot. 
Patronage solicited. 6. 6. Meads. 

R. £. Lbs. 

P.S. — The line through Pennsylvania has been discon- 
tinued in consequence of a painful collision which occurred 
there in July last ; but as such things have been carefully 
avoided ever since, and every precaution taken for the 
future, it is hoped that an indulgent public will not re- 
member that unfortunate occurrence to the prejudice of 
the company. Dunn Browne, Secretary. 


Camp bbab V/Asssinos, V\., Nor. 6. 
HAVE recently taken up the following lines of 
■ march and of battle : — 

Unrchfls the soldier along the rough roLid, 
Fording tha river or climbing the hill, 

Crossing the metulow, or through the thick wood, 
CoBiefl tha Btam order pressing him stll], 

" Forward, close upl " 

VeRTj his Ihnbs irith the terrible marches, 
Blistered bis feet and throbbiog his tireoat. 

Burning the heat that bis Ihirsty throat parchej, 
Ob Coils thecotuimi, dcoyiog him rest: 

" Move 


Liiigen he a moment to gather a Qower, 
Fills ha his cap at the gargling spring. 

Tempt him tha oluaters of a gmpe-twlned bower. 
Sharp in his ears the chiding words ring, 

" To the rnnka, close up 1 

Tears through the ranks the terrible shell, 
Sweeps us hnlf down tho mnskfltry-flre. 

Charges tho foe with mnrdcrons jell, 
Through the fiarco din swells higher and higher 



Steady, boys ! Wavers the foe ! To the charge ! 

On, the old Flag ! Lo, the traitors' red rag ! 
Forward! your bayonets ! Double-quick! march I 

Foot of a MAN in such hour cannot lag ! 

" On, boys, close up I " 

Falls the young'captain, he shouts a last cheer; 

Fall the brave boys on the left, on the right, 
Stops not the column, though heroes lie here : 

Tenderly stepping o'er the dead in the fight, 

The living " close up." 

Thinned are our ranks of their bravest and best; 

Homes are in mourning all over our land; 
Sons of the nation, not now can ye rest: 

Come, brothers, come with steel in your hand; 

The war we'll " close up." 

"The end is slightly abrupt," very likely is the criticism 
you offer in reference to the above effusion ; but then, you 
know, your readers will wish there was more, as Sam 
Weller observed to his father in justification of his Valen- 
tine, to which the ancient Tony was objecting that it 
** pulled up rather sudden." 

Perhaps there is a trifle of poetic license also respecting 
the readiness of the nation to send the rest of her sons; 
or the nation may be more ready to send them than the 
sons are to come. We shall know when w6 see the answer 
to the new call for ** three hundred thousand more," as a 
national New-Year's present. Father Abraham isn't over 
modest in his calls upon us, is he ? It's strange how our 

officials, having once gotten their hand in, rejoice Ui deal 
in big figures. It's like rouge tt notr and all sorts of gam- 
Tiliug. The pluy naturally gets deeper and deeper ; and the 
Bmall stakes put up at first do not long answer to keep up 
tlie excitement of the game. How absurdly ridioulons 
and eonlempfible wa should all now conader a call for 
Beventy-five thousand meu ! What a pitiful driblet of & 
national cspenditure would a million dollars a day now be 
held ! Yet time was when we thought it quite a respe'et- 
able sum. That was a year or two ago, when we were 
spending only our own, oiir children's, and our grandchil- 
dien's money. Now that we aie upon our grcat-grand- 
chtldren's, and still more remote unhom descendants, or 
rather stiU greatly beyond that, spending what we have no 
idea anybody will ever pay at all, it goos as easy as run- 
ning water. Thero are some rather curious questions in 
political economy. Did you ever devote yourself partic- 
ularly to that seience, dear " Republican "? When a 
nation has spent three or four times all that it is worth, is 
it really a great deal richer than it was Iffifore, — especially 
if it is mainly shot away in powder and various military 
projecliles ? Does the fact that it is spent mainly at homn, 
and that the people at homo have iijmished the money, 
alter tlie case? — as for instance, if a man spends his 
money in sinking a shaft for a coal-mine into his own corn- 
field, and doesn't find any coal? 

But I leave these deep BpecnlatJona for the present. 



Neither need I concern myself in the least in reference to 
the fiirlLcoming of those three hundred thonsaud volun- 
tpers. With tho utmoat confidence, I repose upon the 
assurances of the honorable Governor of New York, and 
the other etatcsmen and patriots of hiB stripe, who objected 
to the draft on the ground that it was so easy to nuse 
Tolunteera. Now the pressm-c is removed, and two months 
are left for the people to rush to the rescue of their own 
accord, I eipect to see the valiant Horatio resigning his 
office as governor, and coming on at the double-quick, at 
the head of the New- York quota, and a few over for good 
measure, just about Thanltsgiving time ; and then our 
country's safe ! Perhaps the result of the elections (hrough 
the North may have slightly deranged his patriotic combi- 
nations, however. 


Camp keah Stevebsbcho, Nov. 13. 
by an eminent English divine, that the "atrodties 
■of (our) Northern army," in this "warof csternunation" 
we are waging, " reach almost the point of incredulity." 
Why not quite that point, most sapient dean or bishop? 
(I forget which.) They are absolutely incredible. No 
man of common sense believes a word of said atrocities, 
They have no existence save in the imagination of excita- 
ble narrationists, or those who willfully desire to escito 
'he passions of both aides to fury. I don't believe a squad 


of Conibderates ever drank the comini=.=ary whinkj nut of 
a Yankee akuU, or that cither Soutk-Carolina or Massa- 
chusetts regimeota ever hayonoted eath other's wounded, 
any more than I believe that the EngUsh blow their Sepoy 
prisoners out of the mouths of cannon. I have known a 
good deal personally of the treatment of prisoners by 
both parties, and of their coniluft on the field in many 
and great battles; and I not only never saw an instance of 
barbarity on either side, but, on dilifrent inquiry, I have 
net^r substantiated on reliable testimony a single instance. 
On the other hand, I could relate to you hundreds of in- 
stances of the most touching generosity and kindness and 
self-denial on the part of brave antagonists towards each 
other, on almost every field where they have come in 
conflict. Scores of times t have seen rehel soldiers, guards 
of prisoners, give the very last of the three-days' hard- 
bread issued to them to the hungry prisoners, when they 
knew full weli the penally they would have to pay for 
their generoMty (for a rebel camp is the very last place 
where you will find bard-bread lying round loose, as you 
may well suppose) ; and similar instances on our side, so 
many as to show that kindness, delicacy, and generosity 
arc the rule, and not the exception. The wounded ore 
treated with the most tender, consideration; women and 
children, when their homes fall within hostile lines, with 
delicate kindness. Shame on those who would make the 
brave of America deficient in the noble qualities that 


DuyjT snowjfs nr the asmt. 

gun to run short; but the improvident ones begged of the 
proTiJent, and some sort of a supper was obtained, and 
tho anny rested. At four, a.m., we were roused again, and 
at a little after live were on the march. Scarcely were we 
on tho road, when the enemy's cavalry attacked ub on both 
flunks, and a battery or two opened on us : but, as their 
attack was not iu great force, we soon put them to the 
right about, charged upon their battery, and came near 
capturing it; hut, by putting their horses to a"gallop, they 
succeeded in getting off, and wa resumed our march, with 
skirmishers on each flank. 


About four, P.M. , as we were marching quietly along by 
tho railroad near Bristow's Station, minding our own bua- 
ness, and expecting everybody else to mind theirs, a very 
lively and spirited attack of cavalry, artillery, and infantry, 
was opened upon us aorosa the track very suddenly. It 
would have done your heart good to see how coolly the 
old Second took it, facing to the front (we were marching 
by the right flanl;, as is usual), and charging across the 
railroad to repel the attack. The ii«ue wasn't in doubt 
for an instant. Their fire cut down a good many of our 
brave Ixiys at first (five out of ray conspany) ; but they 
couliin't hold their ground for a moment. Across a deep 
out in the railroad, into the thick pines, and over a burned 
field, our boys double-quicked ; and the enemy doable- 



qoicked before them, abandoned u battery and some five 
hundred prisonora to us, and made tbemselves genoTBlly 
scarce. Wo returned to the line of the road, and held it 
until ten, ; when we moved again (we wore the rear- 
guard of the array, and, of course, could not remain to 
hold the position) ; marched all night ; forded Bnll-Kun 
creek, two and a half feet deep, just before daybreak ; and 
lay down on the grass, in the rain, for a few hours' sleep 
after our fatigues and danger. 

Later in the day, we got into a more regnlor camp ; and, 
though espeuting to move at any moment, we have re- 
mdned holding tins strong position, and skirmishing a 
good deal every day, with (he enemy in our front. Juat 
as I am writing, I see our cavalry, who have passed over 
the run on a pontoon-bridge (we infantry had to wado it), 
charging the rebels, and driving them into the woods about 
ft mile ahead of us. They say soldiers always have a 
grievance ; we have two, — eleven days' rations just served 
out, and sixty rounds of ammunition. Forty rounds ia 
all that a soldier ought, or indeed can bo made, to carry. 
That fills his eaitridge-box ; and the rest is either Hpoiled 
in his pocket, or thrown at once away, to he replaced again 
.by order in a day or two. More is thus actually wasted 
than is expended in battle, aa can be proved by the reports 
of the ordnance-officers. And for the rations, three days' 
are all the haversacks will hold, sls. as much as any emer- 
geaoy ought to compel men to carry, and eleven — why, 



I HA YE just burnt up my bedstead to cook my break- 
fast with, to such extremities am I reduced. Fortu- 
nately our furniture hereabouts is not very costly. My 
bedstead above mentioned consisted of seven, three-cor- 
nered rails from a Virginia fence, laid down side by side in 
the mud near the fire, on which my lieutenant and myself 
spread our blanket and slept very sweetly, with a rubber 
blanket over us, through the steady heavy rain that im- 
proved the darkness of the night to come down upon us 
unseen, but not unfelt. This morning, ashamed to look us 
in the face after such deeds of darkness, the rain has en- 
tirely disappeared ; and the face of Nature looks on us as 
smilingly and roguishly as if the dripping doings of the 
night were an exquisite joke. Well, it seems to us much 
more like a joke now than it did, as the creases made by 
the rails are getting rubbed out of our sides and legs, and 
the clothes are mostly dried. 

Picketing is pretty good fun, after all. How many of 
you are coming out here to try it, my dear readers I 


COMB fa T3E Fsoyr. 

There arc at least ono full tSionsand of you, a strong alile- 
bodieil regiment among yon, who certainly ought to be 
here, who can't possibly get an esaraptitin-certifiKiW from 
your own conscience. You know it pcrfeotly well It is 
a great deal easier to decide on a man's duty in reference 
to this point now than it was when I name out a year and 
a half ago. Now every man who is able-bodied, or nearly 
so, and between the. limiting ages of military ecrrice, may 
presume that the call is to him. When I came, the qnea- 
tion was, "Can yoa afford to go t<] the war ? " Now, in 
the final, serious call of the Government upon our remain- 
ing resources, to finish up the contest, which, so evidently 
to the simplest comprehension, only needs a little more 
perseverance and steady persistence on our [tart to issue 
rightly, and establish the value and permanence of our 
glorious institution s", — nowthequestionia, " Can you afford 
In stay at home? " This is about tl 
Can you affijrd to feel, after the wai 
hood did not help to achieve the glori 
follow 1 This is an especial crisis alt 
the war. Can you afford to contempl 
of this 80 costly war's becoming in som 
issuing less gloriously for our republica 
the future welfare of our nation, because you turned your 
back upon it? A magniSoent national history is creating 
itself now, that shall be written in letters of gold on the 
reoorda of all generations to come. Cai 

le last opportunity. 

b over, that your 
oua result that will 
o in the history of 
ate the contingency 
c measure a failure, 

1 institutions, and 

1 offiird to 


leave your name off the roll, — to be counted ont in the peo- 
ord of the iiatioo's defenders? We don't look at the 
raatter so clearly now sb via did at the commencement of 
the war. It ba^e bceumc a matter of busine^i and selfish 
interest with us. A man considers whether he can make 
more money in the war or out of it. He looks on the 
Government as an employer, out of whom be is to squeeze 
all that ho can, and in whose pay he is to do merely a 
hireling's Bervice, instead of feeling that the Government 
ia merely bia agent and that of the citizens, and that its 
cause is his own cause. We must return to first piin<»- 
plea, remember our old patriotism, read over the old-time 
Fourth-of-July Bpcccbes, which the Conscription Act and 
Phemandiwud-iams and peace-democracy have somehow 
temporarily driven out of our minda. The same old truths 
that wo uacd to declare so often and with much gusto, 
when patriotism dtdu't mean any thing but talk, remain 
jost aa true now when patriotiam means real sacrifice 
and noble action, and perhaps the ponring-ont of life- 

It requires more patriotism to enliat now than it did 
two years ago. To be sure it does i The novelty of the 
thing has worn off. The floating population, those whom 
a community can most readUy spare, have been used np : 
indeed, we who arc already out in the field flatter ourselves 
that wB are not entirely '■surplus population" whom jon 
willingly spare. We see now, far more than at fiitNi, the 


magnitude of the work in hand ; and ve koov more (oh ! bj 
Tfhat a eerioua experience !) h«w hard and practical and 
veariug and toilsorao and bloody a thiag car \». So the 
"volunteer who goes forth to join his Mnntry's defenders 
now goes mth few viaona of martial glory, and with a 
realizing sense of the hardships and privacions that are 
before him. And it is bettor so, I would not bring one 
lecruit to our ranks bj misrepresenting the case to him. 
Soldiering « a hard business, the best you can make of it. 
I have laid a good deal of stone fence, dug many a rod of 
ditch, worked at carpentering and all sorts of fanning, 
been a bookbinder, set up ^pc, sawed a cord of oak-wood 
three times in two, split and piled it, besides getting my 
lessons and reciting them (after a fashion _), all in one day. 
IVo taught a big district school of little urchins of the 
Yankee "persuasion," which ia harder than any of the 
above ; and I'vo attended three " sewing societies " and 
made five and twenty " calls " of au afternoon, which is 
hardest of all. But, of all the different kinds of " manual " 
labor that I ever attempted, the business of marching with 
■n army, " in heavy marching order " and on rations of 
"hard-tack '' and pork, ia the most exbausdng. There is 
very little poetry and a great deal of bard work about au 
active campaign. It is hard to bo a private, himl to he 
an officer, Imrd to march, hard Ut fight, hard to be out on 
picket in the rain, hard to live on short rations and be es- 
poMd to all Borte of weather, bard to be wounded and lose 


legs and arms and get ugly scars on one's face, hard to 
think of lying down in death without the gentle hand of 
love to smooth one's brow ; but there is just one thing 
that makes all these things easy, and that Is the spirit of 
Christian patriotism. And I do not believe that that 
spirit is dead in our land. I don't believe that the nation 
is so tired of this wearisome, wasteful, and bloody war as 
to be ready to give up the principles in whose defense we 
first engaged. The recent elections through the North do 
not speak with that voice. 

And, if the spirit is dying out through the land at home, 
I assure you it is not in the army. Never was there a 
better and firmer tone of patriotism in the ranks. I hard- 
ly know a man, officer or private, who is not prouder 
of these years in the field than of all his previous exist- 
ence. This is the best thing I know of about the Army 
of the Potomac. The spirit of patriotism, and the confi- 
dence in our cause and in our final and speedy victory, is 
a perfect contrast to the feelings of discouragement and 
impatience and growling that prevailed a year ago, and, 
later, after Fredericksburg. The army is going to do 
up the work, whether you re-enforce us or not. It is for 
you to say whether you will come in to share the glory of 
it. We have worked for Uncle Sam's thirteen dollars a 
month, and spent that to eke out our monotonous rations, 
and replace the clothing we have been compelled to throw 
away in battle, or drop in wearisome marches, till the 


cone TO THE Fsoyr. 311 

"worship of the almtgtity dollxr is driven oat of as an; 
^ay ; and if yov prefer io stay U borne on your firms 
and wi;h your merchandise, and trade in oxen, and many 
wire^ and revel in Inxnries, and clothe yoor wives with 
laces and diamonds paid for with the profits of shoddy 
ctmtracts at the expense of the brave soldiers who are 
fizhting yoor battles, — why. be the money and the ease 
yours ; save your prec-ioiu legs and live^ ; add bonae to 
house, and acre to acre ; pay commntetion-iaoney, and 
avoid drafU ; wrangle orer party politics, and settle yoor- 
Belvea in the fat oEBces. And be the hardships onis; ours 
the wonny crackers and the rusty poit; onrs the marches, 
the hard blows, the wasting acknesses ; ours the lonj^nga 
for the dear loved ones at home, the wives and little ones 
who are watching and w^ting for our returning steps with 
unutterable ansiety, — be it ours to fight all the longer 
because you refuse to help ; be it ours to come home all 
the fewer that you may stay at home the more and the 
merrier ; still will we not murmur at our share, nor will- 

ingly exchange it for yours. We will hold it a proud 
privilege to go home poor on our country's pay, to carry 
on our persons the soars of our country's service, to point 
to the marks of our blood on our country's torn but tri- 
umphant banner, to have it writWn on oor 
" He was % soldier of the Union." 



I SUPPOSE it has never ocoarred to aay of < 
Bupient legislators, who are now in extra sesdi 
I anxiously debating wlietder to give the new volunteers 
I five hundred dollars apiece at tho outset, and then from 
I Mven to twelve dollars a month extra besides Uncle Sam's 
rpay and bounties, or only to adopt one of those it 
I I suppose it has never entered one of their in 
I that the old soldiers, who have fought a dozen Imttles, and 
I borne the heat and burden of a couple of years' tenibla 

jaigns, are entitled to any consideration. 
I are lavishing your milliouB freely as water to buy recruits 
I whom no sentiment of patriotism can induce to volunteer, 

no maa rises to suggest that any drop out of tho o 

' your bounty should fall upon the brave men now 

I field, who sprang to arms at the first for patriotism, and 

' not for lucre. We don't expect that any such measure 

of cvcu-banded justice should paxa any of the honorablfl 

bodies now assembled ; but it would he agreeable 

feelings, we acknowledge, to have some honorable member 

just suggest that the extra seven or twelve dollars a month 

OLD aoLDieaa on bio bouxttes. 

might be pud to tlie old and tho new men alike. We doti*t 
object to the laborers wbo come ia at tlio eleventh hour 
getting their penny the same as wo n!it) have worked uU 
tiie long twclvo hours ; bat it does eeem a little tongh 
that they should get their sbillinga and dollars and guineas, 
'while we mubt be content with our original penny. 
' ' Shall we not do what we will with onr own '( ' ' Yea : 
but yon are voting away our own aa well as your own ; 
yoii are taxing ns as well as yourselves ; you ate taking 
something out of the pocket of every one of the old iol- 
diers to pay these extra dollara a month to the new reeniits 
who come in fo fight hy their sides. 

Hare all the necessaries of life risen so much in price 
as to make additional pay neceBsary for those who are 
recruited into our anuies? I wonder where the prices aie 
any steeper than out here in the army, whore tho soldier's 
thirteen dollars a month will barely purchase him an oc- 
casional potato and onion (I've seen ot\«a ten and fifteen 
cents apiece paid for them) to change his monotonous diet 
of pork and hard-tack, to save hitn from scurvy, and keep 
him in tobacco; and, at home, don't bis wife and cliit- 
dren, who have been left to then" own resources a year and 
a half already, need the help to be derived from the extra 
dollars a month pay as much as the wife and children of 
the new man, who can leave behind for them from two 
hundred to five hundred dollars of bis bounty t We 
have stood still and seen men come oat here tor r>iae 


montbs, and go back an;am (having, a good many of tbem, 
1 stopped to guard sonic point in the rear wliilo we came 
[ ahead to do the fighting) with larger pay, and their bonn- 
ir their three^fourtha of a year's service, than 
I sll that we ahall receive for the entire three years; and 
I we have borne it from the love we have &r the good 
We have seen the puhllc senlimeat of the North, 
' almost the whole influence of the newspaperR, and the 
TOte of hundreds of towns and cities, united to favor the 
I buying and sending-out to us afl mihatitutea the lowest 
I and vilest classes of your population to stand by the side 
I of your brothers and eons as companions ; and. we have J 
borne that too, proud in tho thought that wo had ^-irtuo 
BJid discipline enough in our body to keep in. order « 
I each an nnmly addition. Whether, beyond all these 
things, we can bear the additional outrage of seeing an 
L extra monthly wages paid out before our ejea every pay- 
day ta the men who are now to join us, I do not know. 
I hope our patriotism will endure even such a test ; but 
it will be a httlo different from any thing that has befallen 
a yet, because the bounties have been paid, at home, out 
f our Bight, while this extra wages will be a present, 
* gratuitous, and constantly repeated insult. 

To cut the matter short, and have my grumble out, if, 
I for instance, old MaBBoohusetts must raise ten miUion 
3 or loBs to put into the field her quota of fifteen 
[ thouB&ud, and doenn't care for the inequality and injustice 


done lo those already ia tbe field, let ns bopo that eho will 
use some common sense In tbe dlsiiibutiun of the green- 
backs. One-half of the fifteen thousand, however she 
raisea them, will be, in less than sis months, deaertera or 
dead-ieals, hangors-on at hospitals, or discharged for dis- 
ability, — a disability, in most cases, not incurred from any 
service rendered the GJovemment. Let her, therefore, not 
pve the recruits, say, more than a thousand dollars at the 
outset, and another thousand after at least one year's faith- 
fid service, or proof that they have been in one battle 
without running away ; and then tosa thom another thou- 
sand when the war is closed and their service finished. 
If you will got any good service for your money, we will 
be better satisfied than to see you sc^uander it awny on 
those who come ont with no idea of fighling, and who will 
be back at honio on one plea or another ahnoat before an 
ordinary railroad excursion-ticket would lose its validity. 
The men that stay and complete their serviee are tbe ones 
who ought to got the pay. Put an extra five or ten dol- 
lars a month (if you don't know what to do with your 
money) on Ike pay for the seoond year's servioo, and 
Bnothor increase for the third year, and there will bo more 
sense in your expenditure. At present, it looks to us, at 
this distance, as if the whole Northeni people were so 
frightened at the possibility of the conscription whBol'H 
^ving yon the patriot's privilege of serving your counlry 
in arms, as to be able to think of nothing but the getting 


round the present emergency at any cost. No matter 
how much money, if it will induce no matter whom to put 
their names down, and make out the State's quota. You 
are obliged to pass stringent laws to prevent your towns 
and cities from utterly mining themselves in the extrava- 
gance of their bounties ; and all thaib the law accomplishes 
is, apparently, to reserve to the State Le^lature the privi- 
lege of making a general, universal, and so, of course, 
equally distributed bankruptcy. I never knew such a 
readiness to impose taxes before. It beats Artemus 
Ward's willingness to sacrifice his wife's brother to put 
down the Rebellion, this readiness on the part of our 
Northern people to burden their children and children's 
children forevermore with enormous taxes. You can af- 
ford much better to draw lots to see which of you shall 
come out and help us finish up the work that is so nearly 
done, than to raise such extravagant sums to bribe mer- 
cenaries to come out and do your work for you. It is a 
freeman's privilege to vote, and to defend his government, 
not by proxy, but in his own person ; and a nation is in a 
bad way when its citizens are ready to give up that privi- 
lege, and put money, instead of their own right arms, to 
the cause. There ! I've growled my growl : now pass 
your bounty-acts. 



Ob Picket nbab STEVENaBimo, Va., Not. 3Z. 

I'M greatly encouraged ; more rocnncibd to not being 
comnrnniler-ia-chief of all the arniios of America than 
I have been for a long time : for there are actually some glim- 
merings of sense beginning to be perceptible, even in the 
management of our Wiir Department. An order baa 
come down, I am informed by a credible witneaa who says 
he has seen it, — has actually come ilowo, and is to lake 
effect immediately, that the men are not to be compelled 
to carry on their backs henceforth more than five days' 
rationa at any one time. I had utterly despaired of the 
thing; had seen the eightrdaya', the ten-days', and, in 
one or two instances, the eleven-days' mule-burden piled 
on the men's liaeks over and over again, cruelly, waste- 
fully, and usolossly, never once accomplishing the purpose, 
never in any single instance lasting over six days, till I 
had about concluded the Administration was in some way 
politically committed to tbe aiTangement, and that I might 
be unintentionally committing high Copperheadiam by 
grumbling about it. And another thing r you won't bo- 



lieve me this timo, I know ; yon needn't ; it's too muuh 
to ask of you, certainly, in the same letter Ihat mcndons 
the above reform, liut it's the poaitive fact, nevertheless, 
that only forty rounda of cartridges are required hence- 
forth to lio carried liy our soljiera. I am afraid Seei-etary 
Stanton and Gen, Halleck aren't going to live long, they 
are getting so good and consaderate all at on<;e; but 
they couldn't die in a better canae. Why, more cartridges 
have been wasted dujnng this war by compelling the men 
to carry sisty, eighty, and even a hundred rounds, when 
their eartridgo-boxoa won't hold but forty, than would 
carry on for ten years a small " scrimmage " like that of 
England and France in the Crimea. And, besides the re- 
lief from the burden, the boja will no longer be liable to 
drink gunpowdor-coffee fiom a cartridge in their haver- 
sack bursting intA their sugar or cotfee sack, or to be 
blown up by a match Hotting fire to an extra package in 
their breeches-pocket. The Oovcmment may as well out 
down the manufactore of fized ammunition, say a couple 
of million rounds a day ; for the principal am to which 
cartridges have been put hitherto has been to throw 
them away out of knapsacks, haversacks, and pocketa. 
The saltpeter speculators will fail moat likely. Oh, no! 
there's Gillmori! and Fort Sumter to save them. If Q. 
A, 0. could only he put upon an allowance of forty rounds 
for hia three-hund red-pounders, the Sumter dust-heap de- 
fenses wouldn't he continually strengthened by the addi- 


tioa of so much broken iron-ware. But the 1: 
luauufoctaro must be encouraged, I suppose. Has it 
never occurred to GiUmore, though, that, as the ship 
chanucl passes so near Sumter, a few more moctba of his 
bombardmeDt will fill up that channel v"th more formida- 
ble obatruetious tban thuse the rebels have laid, even a 
monnt^D-heap of shot and shells? Admiral Dablgren 
probably perceives this danger to the passage of bis iron- 
clads ; and hence tbo mysterious source of \he rumored 
estrangement of those diatinguiabed men. 

But to retm-n from Charleston to the Army of the Poto- 
mac. We are lying hero as quietly and eomfortalily 
almost Lfi if m winter-quarters ; all sorts of rumor.s pre- 
vailing about us and among ust, but not a soul knowing 
what wih be the nest step. I doubt whether even George 
and Abranam bto decided what is best to be done : but, 
when the} do decide, we shall lie down at nigbt thinldng 
of putting on an addition to our house the nest day, or of 
rai^g the chimney one pork-barrel higher ; and in the 
morning, at reveille, say half-past five, the word will be 
passed round, " Breakfast, boys, pack up, and off at 
seven ! " And we shall be off at seven, and twenty miles 
distant at night, eliarging somebody's rifle-pits, laying a 
pontoon-bridge, or perhaps building our fourth log-house 
for the season, to he plastered up or burned up or aban- 
doned, according tfl the circumstances. Never was an 
army better in hand; never a leader who could pot it 

" Well done, 
a the (fllegrapb- 
an engineer ao 
mie one of the 


"twice in three places " qtuoker or more neatly. IF' 

pVeade or Halleek or Stanton or the President could de- 

n the right tldng to bo doae, or if ProTidence would 

pcciaJlj postpone the approach of winter till gome two of 

D could agree on a plan, you might rely on the eieon- 

of it with a trust I should never have dared to place 

1 the Army of the Potomac under' any of its previous 

Setbre "Litulmak" would have gotten hia 

"headquarter" tents down, and his slnff and ' escort 

adorned for a start, our Gcorgo would be at the end of 

a forty-mile expedition, just starting off his prisoners 

for Washington; and Father Abraham's 

Lboys 1 " would be flashing down to us o 

Pity a machine so efficient, mth 

reful and skillfdl, can't he put upon a 

f .routes to Richmond before the mud shuts it off ! 

But the Rebellion is practically "gone up," whatever 
B done or left undone. The longest purse decides a 
nodem war. The party whose resources will bold out 
a day the longer of the two mns. Uncle Sam's wind is 
V&B best. Ho can strike the last blow; and down the 
K.iavud, wicked Hebellion goes. I grieve most dncerely, 
even now, in anticipation, over the vast amount of suffer- 
ing and starvation which must come this winter in the 
rebel Stales ; suffering of the poor women and innocent 
children, of thousands whose hearts have always been 
with die old Union and the stars and atripes ; sofierin^ 


of hosts of Union prisoners, who will have to share, in a 
measure at least, in the destitution which prevails in the 
land, notwithstanding all that our Government can do to 
alleviate their condition. Yes, I acknowledge to a little 
compassion for what the rebel soldiers themselves will have 
to endure ; yet I can, with tolerable resignation, contem- 
plate the taming influence that a little wholesome starvation 
will exercise over rebels in arms, and be complacent over 
almost any thing that promises to end this dreadful con- 
test with success to us and a happy return to our homes. 




WISHING to celebrate with due festivity iihe 
National Thanks^ving to-morrow, I have just 
sent in the following requisition upon our brigade commis- 
sary: — 

Required for officers' mess, of Company G, 14th 
Itegunent, — 

One turkey, ) j j 
. y dressed. 

Three chickens, ) 

Eleven mince-pies. 

Two hundred oysters (on the half-shell). 

Five gallons new cider. 

Two bushels winter apples (Nonesuch). 

One pumpkin, three dozen eggs, and one gallon milk 

(for pies). 

Ten pounds hard crackers. 

Four pounds pork. 

D. B., Captain, &l 

So you see we mean to render all honor to the proclama- 
tion of the President, and so many worthy governors of loyal 


States, and lay in a stock of croatiire-comforta to ininister 
to our phyacal wants, while not neglecting, I trust, the 
intellectual, moral, and spiritual exercises appropriate to 
theoccaaon. My requisition, as above given, ia not bo 
mnch to furnish forth a grand dinner and gratify our relor 
tives, aa, by varying somewhat from our usual bill of fare, 
and approaching in Bome measure the styles of edibles 
that will load your tables at home, to bring ourselves the 
more into sympathy with you our far-off and mueb-loved 
friends. We shall, through the associations connected with 
the various luxuries set down above, bring ourselves into 
a closer rapport with our families aad kinsmen and 
friends, who will bo sitting down to tables loaded with soch 
like articles, only more abundantly. Partaking of these 
comfortable viands, our thoughts and hearts will soon pass 
over the hundreds of intervening miles ; and wo shall be 
with those wo love best, enjoying the feast of reason and 
flow of soul (the best portion of Thanksgiving festiyitjea), 
gatisiying our appetite for social converse and friendly in- 
teroonrse, the greetings of affection and the words of love. 
Dissecting artistically tho noble turkey furnished us, in 
answer to tho above requisition, by our provident Uncle 
Sam, through tho medium of his faithful commissary, I 
shall think of the many boards at which I should be 
heartily welcome, where the same process wiH bo most 
likely gone through with at about tho same tune ; and it 
will be a little aa though I were really there. Helping 

Duim BsowBE m rap abut. 

myself to a delicate inoTBel of the poultry prnyided an 
above, I may be borne, bo to speiQi, upon the wings of a 
chicken, to tlie bosom of my family, break a wish-bone 
with my hopeful four-yeajMild, sitting, with bib under Ha 
ohin, on a higb cbair by my side ; and ask tbo partner of 
my joys and Borrows, who sits opposite, if I may help her 
to a little more of the dressing. While making out my 
requisition. I waa thinking bow gladly our good friends at 
the North would answer a requiaition from us for a grand 
TbankagiTing dinner to the whole Army of tbo Potomac ; 
yes, to every one of your sons and brothera who is in tbo 
field in your cause anywhere in our land. If we could 
only start aa express line alraight from your loving hearta 
and bands to our mouths, what a spread would we have 
to-morrow ! Well, wo have the never-failing, lightning 
lino of imagination, of kind wishes and deathless affection. 
We'll try to be well satisfied with tbia, and to render with 
some ^ncerity tbo thanks due to our kind Father above 
for the many good things, the infinitely rich blessings, he 
baa bestowed upon and continued unto us the past year. 


I am here interrupted by the return of my messenger 
to the commissary. All the articles on the list are crossed 
out, except the laat two, — the pork and the crackers ! Aa 
a beartlesa joke upon my migfortune, the vrord designating 



&e kind of apples ia left standing nlso, — "Noncsneh." 
Ominous designation indeed ! Well, I truat, as I am 
baited in my intentioo of sympatliizing with yon in my 
style of dinner to-morrow, that some of you will bave 
conmderatflly forestalled mo, and set forth your festive table 
with a. big chunlc of fat pork and a plate of hard-bread 
to sympathize with a, soldier's Thanksgiving-dinner. 

P. S. — Ordei's arc just in to march in the morning : 
BO we may celebrate our Thanksgiving by a long march 
ia the mud, or even, possibly, by a, conflict with the ene- 
my. Having little present cause for thanksgiving, then, 
onrselves, as far as the comfort of the day is concerned, 
may we at least be doing that which sh^ give the country 
some cause of lasting tiianks^ving ! 



TUB MisE-Ri;;f CAMFAias. 

Dec. 8, ises. 
E have just retomod from our little ( 

over tliG Itapidan ; and, as one migbt expect &om 
Buch a miserablo, barren, wasted, and desolate country as 
we have visited, wo have returned no whit richer than we 
went away. Why, wo find that not even laureb grow 
here at this seasna ; and so didn't pluck one, 'so far as I 
can loam. Wo have just dropped over uncoremoniouely 
to cull upon Loo, and found him making so much fiiss to 
reeeii-e ua, overdoing the thing in fact, that we wouldn't 
Btop, but retired in disgust. We don't want too much 
parade made on our account, When wo found that he 
was cutting down all the trees in his front-door yard to 
mako an uneoiiiraonly high fence, and even digging up a 
large port of his farm iato mounds and ditches, and snch 
like ornamental works, over our arrival, we wouldn't 
countenance tho thing, and came away before putting him 
to still more trouble. 

Tho fall campaign in Virginia may now be considered 
as closed, I should think, and aa a pretty even thmg, i 


(he whole. They have made us a visit, and we have 
made them a, visit. Tliere ima been a Bee-saw game aemss 
the Bappahamwck, in which each side has gone np and 
gone down ; and nobody can say which haa kept the longest 
end of the pknk. 

The simple state of the case is this, — that hnth the 
Virginia armies iwc now so wcli-disciplined and esperi- 
enoed, that they are very hard to beat. One side must 
make some serious blunder to meet any serioaB disaster; 
and they don't make any great blunders. They have 
grown cautions over the esporienee of Fredericksburg and 
Gettysburg ; and they have learned the value of oven 
slight and hastily thrown-up breastworks. With tlie for- 
midable rifles now in use, a single line of veteran soldiers, 
behind a three-foot breastwork of earth and rails or a stone 
fence, can dnve back and almost destroy tliree similar 
lines approaching to attack them : wo have all learned 
tills truth ; and even the most pitiful coward and sneak in 
a regiment knowa that hia safest place is to stay by, and 
not get shot in the liaek as he runs away. Give either 
oar army or the rebels twenty-four hours' notice of an 
approaching attack, and they will select a good position, 
and throw up intreuchments, which it is foUy for any but 
overwboiminglj superior numbers to attempt to carry. 
We went over the Kapidan, hoping t» get at tie enemy 
in some spot where his superiority in position would no 
more than balance oar superiority in numbers; but ho 


set his men to chopping and dig^ng, till, in their high and 
comniandiiig portion, we should have onl^ made another 
Frederick shurg by trying to storm them. The order waa 
given, and the hour was fised (eight o'clock, Monday TEOm- 
ing) ; knapsacks were piled up under guard ; the men were 
cautioned as to all the particulars of their advance ; and 
every officer and soldier made himself ready, at the firet 
note of the bugle, to advance on that short road to death 
or victory. And, had the buglo sounded, that line would 
have moved steadily wp, and done what human valor and 
endurance could do toward planting our hattle-flaga on 
the crest of those briatliug works. They might, perhaps, 
have done it at the sacrifice of half or two-thirda of their 
number; but it was a very aerioos "perhaps," and the 
hour passed, the buglo sounded not, the charge was not 
made, and we are safely, and perhaps a little inglori- 
ously, back again in our old camp. We have met with 
no serious losses, so fur as I have learned. Onr retreat 
was very skillfully conducted ; and few stragglers fell out, 
and few prisoners were taken. 

If, deciding not to attack, we had moved at once back 
to Fredericksburg, and occupied the highta in the rear of 
that city for our winter-quarters, we should all have felt 
that a good thing had been done, and our labor not wastr 
ed ; but wo waited from Monday morning till Tuesday 
night. Bad then, Lee haying, I suppose, anticipated na by 
throwing a force into Fredericksburg, we were obliged to 

retnm the way we went, and couldn't oyen Bavo onr 
credit by saying that we went over, not particularly 
anxioiis for a fight, but just taking that route to Frede- 
ricksburg, and paying our respects to Leo in passing. 
However, I may be just talking nonsense and folly, aa 
perhaps it was no part of our plan to get to Fredericks- 
burg at all, and not desirable for us to change our base 
thitherward. I am just telling you what tte troops say 
about the moveinont among themaelvea; and moreover it 
seems as if the position hock of FroderickBburg was a 
good deal better one to hold for the winter than our pres- 

We have heard nothing from the world since we went 
away, and are confidently esrpeoting to-morrow lota of 
letters and papers to post us up in respect to our frienda 
and the state of the war. Wo don't even know what 
Grant has been doing, or how true were the nimora of his 
victory that we heard just as wo were moving away on 
Thanks^ viug Day. 

There ! Eomabody sajE orders are come to be ready to 
move at a moment's notice. What's up ? Isn't our fall 
campaign ended yet ? Yours in haste. 

Deo. 7, 

I told you in my last of our safe but inglorious return 
o our camp iMa side of the Bajudan ; but I did not t«U 

830 vuyy browns in tee army. 

joa what a sweet time we had dming our foolish little 
campaign of ^ week. It is all very well to talk of a 
campaign in December ; and it is a good thing to take 
part in, too, if something of national importance is to be 
accomplished. Wo will march and fight up to our knees 
in mud, or through drifts of snow, if we can really see 
any thing done toward finishing up the war ; but to be 
put through such a week as the last one was, and see 
absolutely nothing come of it, is a bit discoura^g. 
Nevertheless, it is better than running our heads against 
a stone wall, and gettmg them broken. That is some 
oonsolation, to be sure. 

But I was gomg to tell you a little what it is to march 
and fight, or even to march and not fight, if you think 
that more appropriate to our recent expedition, at this 
season of the year. Ima^e yourself carrying all that 
you shall have to eat, drink, wear, and sleep under for 
five days, on your back, and your weapons of war and 
ammunition besides, and then march, not independently 
and at your leisure, but in column, where you can not 
dodge the ditches and puddles and other bad places, 
rapidly, and through the warm portion of the day, — say, 
at a moderate estimate, fifteen miles, — till you are thor- 
oughly saturated, as to aU your clothes, with perspiration, 
as you surely will be even if the day be quite cold ; and 
then at dark, or an hour after, as the cold night comes 
down around you, turn out from the road, stumble across 


& field or meadow, thoroughly wet your feet asd lege in 
crossing a elough or brook, spend fifteen or twenty shiver- 
ing minutes in dressing the lines and staokiog anus, und 
find yourself dismissed for the night. You know uothing 
where to seek for water for your coffee, or wood to cook 
your supper and dry your soaking feat, but must go run- 
ning round the country till jou have supplied jourself in 
abundance ; and tbut, too, wlien several thousand other 
soldiers are in competition with you at the same market. 
Then you must kindle your fire, get out your little cup, 
and make your coffee over a smoking, outK)f-door fire ; 
eat your hard crackers and pork ; and dry off your clothes 
and persons as best you may by the fire, and exposed 
moat likely to a chilling wind. Then you must select 
your place on the freeKiug ground, spread out your rub- 
ber blanket, and if you have a cbum, na every good sol- 
dier should, lay one of your woolen blankets under you, 
and spread the other over the two of you, and the other 
rubber above that, and lie down, overcoats on, to the 
warmest sleep you can command. If the heavens above 
contain themselves, you can possibly get through the night 
comfortably if your cnculation is firstrrate; for "where 
. two lie together there is heat," oven on a December night, 
with your feet to the fire. But if the clouds shed their rain 
upon you, if the cold, drizzling sleet come remorselessly 
down upon your so thinly protected pereon, then farewell 
bleep, unless you are so exhausted with the march that 


^^^ ten 

limist, eyea at the risk of its becoming the sleep 
But, at the best estate of the soldier's bivouac, 
he ia by no means sure of lying Jowu in peace under the 
open fixmament. About once ia four or five days, in his 
fegular turn, comes guard or picket duty to give him s 
[Bight of watchfulness after a day of weariness, before 
another day of woory marching. But this ia not alh 
The camp h no sooner in sound repose, perhaps, than, 
the trains coming up, or, if wc are at the extreme fioot, 
coming as near as is conadered safe, the order conies 
round to rise and draw rations. Then a detwl of six or 
company must go away in the dorknesa 
the wagons, and bring the rations and cut them np, and 
sergeants must distribute them ; tbo whole bosinees 
occupying, frequently, all the first part of the night. 
Twice out of the six nights of our recent expedition, the 
disturbed till midnight with this business, 
morning is the same routine of wood, water, 
iking breakfast, packing, and preparing for march in 
frosty morning air, and most likely long before day, 
the order ia usually to march at daylight ; and off we 
another day of hard marching, or to an advance in 
line of battle, or a charge upon the enemy. Satordaj 
morning, Nov. 28, we marched over two miles in line 
of battle ; that is, ranks two deep, and Une extending 
according to our numbers, miles perhaps, and advancing 
without reference to the load, and tanung out for no 

obstacles, over ditches and sloughs, through woods and 
fields, sweeping every thing before ns. Then it rained a 
cold, cleety rain the whole day ; and we stood shivering 
in Bs ineh.'s of rand, and at night could hardly pick out 
a, dry spot in the woods hi lie down in. 

Then came our movement round to the enemy's flank 
on Sunday, and the aiTa.y for the expected attack on the 
exceedingly fropty Monday morning; but the crown of 
&e whole for a teat of a, man's endurance was the retreat 
on Tuesday night. Twelve hours of steady marching we 
made from nine, p.m., till nine, a.m., with only one little 
rest of perhaps twenty minutes. And then, after two or 
three hours to get coffee and food, wo stmled off again, 
and marched till nearly nine, p.m., before we reached the 
old camps we had left a week previous ; the last three or 
four miles across country for a short cut, through woods, 
ditches, swamps, bushes, and briers, that certainly length- 
ened our jnumoy at least half a dozen miles instead of 
shortening it. I thought sure I should be obliged to leave 
one poor playedrovt oEBcer of Uncle Sam in a big ditch 
that he at last stumbled into after dark. He didn't seem 
really worth picking up and carrying along any farther. 
But finally, for the sake of the good cause, I pried and 
rolled him up the bank, clapped the hat a little firmer on 
the top of his head, and pushed him on across the plowed 
field covered with long tough briers that tangled his legs 
at every step, and succeeded in emptying him into his old 

onyjf BROWNS m tee abmt. 

1, baaflled doini in a hoap like a parcel of limp, cremed^sia 

dirty clothes, awaiting the pnina of the wuslierwoman- 

But I wua glttd the next morning (hat I took the trouble, 
and lii>pu you arc so too ; fur othiiiwise the lucubtadon^ 
of your oorrei^poiLdeiit would have ceased evermore : for 
the nmn waa the veritable D. B. hiniBelf. I never expe- 
rienced more deliuious sensations than when I lud those 
tired bnoes on the uld bunk, and drew the blanket over 
my head for the long-delajeJ sleep ; for I had been on 
guard and picket duty two out of the etx preceding 
night,^. and marched tlie whole of the night immediately 
preoediiig. Every limb and muscle and nerve of my 
lirod body Ront up murmurs of thanksgiving for the ra- 
freshmont of rest. And sleep eame as the bealer of all 
my discomforts, — a swoet, deep, ten-hours' Elumber^ 
which, thanks to a good constitution and the health 
gEuned by sixteen months of out-door life, left me in the 
morning to rise fresh and young like a boy iigain, and 
ready for another similar trip. 

But I have written you enough to show that a winter 
campaign in even fovorahle weather, suoh as we certainly 
did have in the main, is no mere pleasant amusement. 
We must have marched in that last twenty-four honra 
something over thirty miles. May our nest marches 
amount to more than the last ! Yours egotistioally. 




It is a very nice operation (fl withdraw an army from 
the immediate front of a strong enemy's line. It takes but 
a moment to write the newspaper item, that " Ocu. So and 
So, finding th^ position of the enemy too strong to be 
forced, retired without loss ; " but to do the thing neatly 
and safely, without loss of men or stores, ia one of the most 
deUcata of military operatjons. It is easy enough to be 
repulsed, and rush hack helter-skelter, " every man for him- 
Eclf, and Gen. Stuart take the hindmoat; " but to insinuate 
an army out of a tight place voluntarily as an unforced 
military measure — that is another thing. I suppose two 
great armies are rarely drawn up so closely and squarely 
in fi«nt of each other, and lie face to face so quietly, and 
then sepm-al^ so cleanly, as tbe two anniea of Meade and 
Lee in the recent operations across the Bapidan toward 
Orange Court House. In that part of the hne occupied 
on our side hy the second corps, under Gen. Warren, the 
distance between the advanced skirmishers on either side 
varied from fifty yards to thirty rods, perhaps. Men could 
easily talk with each other across, could hear the orders 
given, observe the relief of sentries, and be aware of 
almost every movement going forward ; and the problem 
was, to withdraw the supplies and trains, the ambulances 
with the wounded, the troops and all the artillery, Uie 
pickets, and even the very foremost line of skirmishers, from 



before that ncia nnd most formidable line of vigjlact me- 
mies, witliout tboir knowledge if possible, certainly without 
injury from tbdir attacks. 

Monday morning, we lay two hours in lines of battle, my 
regiment in the foremost, ospecting. at the I'oneerted note 
of the bugle, to move forward in desperate as»iult upon 
that long line of works, bristling with cannon, and defended 
by sharp abaliB along its whole firont; but Tuesday 
eveaing the movement was to be in the opposite direction, 
to put as great a distance as possl))le between us, and aa 
silently as might be. Stealthily as a eat might lie sup- 
posed to witbdraw from some too dangetons proximity, on 
velvet toes, and with claws and teeth and watchfiil eyes 
ever toward the enemy, so take we up our retrograde 
march, the strongly guarded trains foremcst, the artillery — 
all but a light battery or two for emergencies— next, and 
the main body of the troops following, a select regiment or 
two \i) bring up the rear, and strong cavalry escorts all 
along our Sanks ; none left behind, save the devoted 
pickets to hold fast their position till the army bo far on its 
way, and themselves perhaps to pay in death or captivity 
for the safe departure of the main body. The usual camp- 
fires are left burning, and even men to keep them np til! 
the witbdi-awal of the pickets. At nine, p.m., the grand 
movement began, save that of the trains whieh were drag- 
ging their slow length some hours before ns along the 
road. Artillery rumbling heavily stretches iteelf out on 


the turnpike. The heavy masses of troops prolong them- 
eelTca into one seemingly everlasting column, moving by 
the flank, in files of four, well closed up and in excellent 
order, in the same direction. Tramp, tramp, tramp along 
the frozen rood, with an occasional tinkle of a tin cup and 
the low voice of comrade to comrade, or the clatter of a 
horse's hoofa as an Mde gallops along the column with 
a message ; with the gleaming of musket-barreb^, and now 
and tlien a glare of light from some wayade camp-fire, 
upon the moving array; tlirough the endless thicket of the 
great "Wilderness;" now among tiny, thickly growing 
pines, now through groves of noble oaka, and yet again 
penetrating tangled bottoms of I know not what varieties 
of trees and shrubs, all matted together with vines. So 
moke we our way to and then along the plank-road and 
toward Fredericksburg ; horses and theii' armed riders 
looking out of tlie trees upon our column the whole way. 
and casting huge, fantastic shadows in the fight of the 
hundreds of fires kindled oa either side as if to guide us on 
our right path. It was a right, romantic spectacle, a night 
to bo remembered a whole life long. 

But you are not forgetting, I hope, the poor pickets 
and the rearguard still confronting the grim fines of the 
enemy, s.nd upon whose fiiithfiilness depends the safety of 
the whcle moving body. Listening ansiously to the 
moveme its of our forces behind them ; peering watchfully 
into tho obscurity before them to fee if the enemy show 

Duxw BnowsE m tbe army. 

any indioationa of knowledge of onr maiHBuver ; dreadii g 
leat B. prematura discovery on tbe part of the enowy 
ehould induce them to sally out in force ; and yet deter- 
mined (o hold their ground with steady Tutor, and prove 
themselves worthy of the trust reposed in them, though 
kuowiDg that oven a wound woidd throw them into the 
hands of the enemy, where the greatoBt sufferings and des- 
titution would be their lot, — ^slowly pass the anxious 
liours of watchfulness and piercing cold. But three 
o'clock in the morning eonics at last. The reliable vot«mn 
ofBcer selected to withdraw the pickets, and bring up tlio 
rear, passes quietly along the line; the advanced Bentries 
oreep back on hands and knoes to the outposts ; the out- 
posts 8t«al away to the reserves ; the reserves form into 
column, and pass rapidly over the road, arousing eveiy 
straggling sleeper from tho main body who may have es- 
caped the notice of the provoHt-guard, and sweeping him 
into their column ; and the cavalry hoveriag along onr 
flanks fill! in right and left as the picket column passes, 
and are ready to check any too-sudden pursuit, and skir- 
mish along the rear of our column, till the wliole army has 
accomplished its weary but succesafnl night-movement, 
and is safely across the river harrier. So nicely are the 
calouhitions made, so delicately is the whole complicate! 
machinery of the withdrawal managed, that not one of the 
hiudred things that might have marred the whole does 
actually occur ; and the retirement is a successfHiI manoen- 

ver; the retreat becomes no disaster. Discipline, stead- 
inesB, and valor have accomplished it so quietly, that 
nothing is thought of what is indeed a more difficult feat 
than to fight an ordinary battle. 

DawD breaks upon the old encampment. Tho ad- 
vanced pickets of the enemy, who has been chipping and 
dicing, and strengthening his defenses by busy details, the 
whole night, discover that the little detached breastworks 
of rails over against them have no bluu-co:ited occupants. 
A oaulious advance of the gray-backs shows our whole 
line of pickets withdrawn, and our catnpa with theii still 
Bmonldering fires deserted. A rapidly-organized pursuit 
finds only traces of the direction in which we have de- 
part^; and Stuart's cavalry, hastening on our track, gets 
op just in time to see the last of the Union pontoon-boats 
drawn up &om the waters of the Bapidan upon the liitber 



Dec 24. 

PERHAPS yon may have noticed that I have not 
written you any letters for some time past. Partly 
I've been ack ; and a tight quiuine-and-whisky diet, varied 
with Wne-masa and Dover' a powders, wouldn't be likely to 
inspire any thing veiy entertaining. Then I wanted, be- 
Bides, to SCO whether you could sustain your little paper 
without any help from this quarter. I have been happy 
to see that your issues went right on as quietly and regu- 
larly as ever, with no inoro disturbance of equilibrium pro- 
duced by a short allowance of the raw material from the 
second corps than the fmlure of a rag-merchant In Can- 
ton would affect Secretary Chase's issue of greenhaolcB. 
I believe the people are pretty much over expecting 
the Potomac Army to cross the country to Richmond 
this winter, and pretty much over grumbling at our ill 
success in our List attempt. Let us hope we shall not 
^ve the enemy quite so much notice next time we are 
about Ifl move. There is reason in all (huigs. It is 
well enough ta use all proper eourtefy toward a, foe. 
3 the Unglish wdl fira first; the French guai-J 

never fires first," &o : but to publish officially in a Gov- 
emmeQt organ, a, week beforehand, tlia movement which 
ought to bo of jLe nature of a surpriso to succeed, — 
that was laying it on a trifle too thick, wasn't it ? and, 
whatever tho people may say about it, it is the certain- 
eat thing possible that the anny diil the right thing in 
not attacking Leo in his position boyonil the Gapidan ; 
and Meade, knowing himself to be right on that point, 
won't trouble himself ovenaucli, I hope, about the howling 
of the people. Tho fact of the matter is, armies can't 
fight pleasantly and comfortably in the winter. The style 
of lying still, or otherwise wasting all the decent season of 
the year, and then starling your grand eshiliitions about 
the let or loth of December, has remained in vogue a 
good while, to be euro ; but it must, as tho boys say, 
"play out." 

Then as for Gtn. Meade and his superaedure : why, 
the soldiers hereabouts think we may as well be contented 
with the general we have, who is certainly & good one, 
who has shown wondorful skill and facility in tho handling 
and moving of ati army, and has, on the whole, proved 
himself a pretty good match for Lee in generalship, the 
whole oampiugn through, as to go farther, and fare — no 
man can say how. The country, of oourse, overrated 
Meade after the battle of Gettysburg ; concluded that the 
great military htirc had now made his appearance on the 
stage in the chief part, and all we should have more to 


opiry BROwnrx ik the arutt. 


do would be to clap odt haads and shont ' ' Encore ! " afi 
each new victory till the enrtidn dropped. You may not, 
probkUy. recollect that I wrote yon a few days after Oet- 
tysborg, irith an entlia^iasm not quite toned up to that of 
the country in general, that " our now commimder " was 
" a good general, of tuJly average ability, eseellent mili- 
tary knowledge, and Mr moral character, — which is a 
graat deal to say of a general." " What I aaya I stands 
by." Meade is a very fiiir genera!. He hits handled this 
■nny with a neatness and dispatch no other general ha.i 
.•rer shown. Without any fiiss, he pnta us just where we 
! m the quickest possibli; way. T am certain we 
should lose, in this respect, mobili^ of troops byany change. 
And onilcr no other leader would the men fight with more 
confidence ; for they are snre fae is chary of thrusting 
them into danger ; ia careful of their lives : and, if he 
orders thorn anywhere, they know ho has looked at the 
matter carefully, and they can probably go there. And 
if the order to charge those works on the other side of the | 
Eapidan had come, as wo for two hours momGntarily 
peotcd, every man would have marched cheerfully i 
fcrmidablo as they looked, behaving that Meade's jndg- | 
ment was better than his own. And still further : becanse 
he did not order the advance then, because of the hope- 
leseneBS of the undertaking, and his regard for their limbs 
md lives, tho next time ho tells the boys to charge, 
*herever it may be, those boys are going to charge like 

an avalancbe, which don't stop till it gets there. If you 
bad seen the oleanuesa, celerity, and safety with which 
the army wag withdrawn from under the very nose of tho 
enemy, without molestatioa, and whiahed acrosa tho Rap- 
idan "'twist night and morning," you wouldn't supersede 
Meado; certdnly, if you suspected you might soon have 
occafflon to advance backward oat of the enemy's country. 
Lest any may suspect the disinterestedness of these re- 
mains laudatoiy of our ganeral, I solemnly declare that I 
am not on the stuff of the commander in question, and 
have no present espectation of riding a horse and wear- 
ing gold lace by his appointment. Nay, the man once 
aetnidly had the impoliteness to return to me, disapproved, 
a note I sent him requesting a few days' leave. 

We are now actually in winter-quarters ; about the 
fonrtb that a good many of us have built this season. TJn- 
fi»Ttunat«ly for me, we stopped at tho oven numbers. All 
my odd-aumberod chimney.^ have drawn finely ; while the 
even-numhered ones have smoked, though constructed with 
equal skill (my personal beauty renders it specially neces- 
sary to take pains with a chimney at whose fireside I am 
to sit), Liid up with the same kinds of sods and atouea, 
and plastered with mud of the same consistency. Vir- 
^nia ia tho most eongiHtently nmddy State that I know ; 
always mud enough in your front-door yard to plaster up 
your chimney, and of the stickiest kind. Won't you 
come and sit with me some of these long winter evenings, 


4«r "BepaUcaD"? and pertiaps your different style 
of besaty miglit couoteract mine, and m; cbimney become 

Since I wrote jon last, our brigade has changed its 
quMteis. One verj rainy Sabbath mDming. I bebevc it 
ms Dec. 27, tbe order came at eight o'clock, " Pack 
up. and move at lune.' Down went our bouses; on to 
<iar fJioiilders weut all our worldly goods ; and off we 
staggered in the pelting, pitUesa storm, and through mud 
nearly up to oor knees, about three miles, to cstabhah a 
Dew (Muup on the roughest kind of a hiU, Stony Mountaia 
by name and by nature, almost on the banks of ihe Bapi- 
dun, and within pluu sghl of abont a mile of the enemy's 
pickets. The storm continued three days, and was sno- 
ceeded by a week of the soappinge^ cold weather that 
even Virginia (which has, on the whole, decidedly more 
bitter weather, especially nights, according to my expe- 
rience, than "sunny" New England) can afford. — a 
sweet time to build our new city, you may well ima^ne ; 
that is, if you ever emigrated in tbe middle of winter in 
a storm ; but it was acoomphsiied at last, the pouring 
rain giving us one assistance at least, — in mising the 
mortar to mud up our bouses. For me personally, you 
know, the change was ajl right j for my present chimney 
draws tike a blister, and never smokes any more than my 
mother or Dr. Trask. 

BouBB jjTD FUBimnmo. 

My present house has a. real door, with hinges and 
screws anil lateb and twit ; an autinil shovel and tongs 
Btanding by tlie fireplace ; chairs, table, mirror, &e. ; yea, 
positively a carpel on the floor. But, beyond all the rest 
of the furniture, my chief ornament and pride, which 
makes me the envy of all the regiment and brigade ; the 
finishing perfection of my house, which maketh this do- 
meatie temple to exceed in glory all the former ones I 
have built; my polished eomer-Htone, my crowning cupola, 
my heaven-pointing spire, my portico of Corinthian col- 
umns, my statues of finest morblo and brass, my — oh 
there's no use in talking ! It isn't to be described any. 
more than a moonrise, or painted any more than a sunset. 
Zou couldn't gaesa it in a month. I can't tell it to you 
all at once, at least not without a good deal of preparar 
tion. I doubt if you can rcahze it when I tell you. 
Indeed, I know nobody can who hasn't been a poor, for- 
lorn, uncivilized widower of a soldier for a couple of 
years. But the words that express this glory of my 
house, the syllables that convey to your dull ears soma 
very faint and feeble and distant conception of your cor- 
respondent's present felicity in camp, at the extreme froat, 
on the Kapidaa, are — a wife and baby ! Wo are house- 
keeping on our front picket line. I have a home, Uko a 
bird's neat on the brooch of a cannon. War ! — I don't 
know any thing about it ; I ara in perfect peace. News 1 
— I haven't looked ii the papers for a fortnight; but my 


little boj has just found a litUe secesh dog to play wilk 
Writing notes of the campaign for the ** Republican " — 
nonsense ! Don't I ride ont every morning along tbe 
picket lines ^rith somebody in a riding habit and a side- 
saddle ? Ton wouldn't have had this brief epistle if the 
owner of said side-saddle hadn't suddenly recalled it this 
morning, «o that the usual ride couldn't be taken. Gt)od- 


0»Fioi1l jkalodht. 

OUE re^ment and brigade are at present maintaining 
a sort of " Brmed-Deutrolity " position between the 
two Virginia armies. Wn don't exactly belong to Lee's 
host ; for tlie Rapidon ia between iia and certain sharp 
questions, and ratlier grim-looking musket-barrels are 
pointed our way when wo venture too near that pictor- 
esquB stream. No more do we at present seem to belong 
to Meade's army ; for the third corps, with that brilliant 
strategy wltich their commander is scud to have displayed 
in our late (too iat«) operations on the other side of the 
river have posted their line of pickets directly in our 
rear, cutting us off from all communication with onr own 
diviaon and corps commanders, from all our supplies, and 
from the Northern world generolly. The officers of their 
picket are insbnicted to let nobody pass either way with- 
out a written order from the headquartors of Gen. Meado 
himself, or of the general commanding the third corps ; 
80 that even Gen. Warren, our corps general, if he wishes 
to visit this portion of his command, must ride over, and 
ask permisfflon of Gen. French. A surgeon with a pass 


Duss browhs is the armt. 

from Gen. Warren was stopped and toroed back to^ay, 
tvbile in his regular line of duty, and going out to attend 
the tuck in hia own regiment, in easea where life ajid death 
might well depend upon his epeedy presence. And last 
night the good chaplain of the 108th New York, coining 
mth his wife, who had just arrived from Washington with 
Gen. Meade's porraisaion in her hands, was stopped at 
this ferocious pickef^line within a mile of his cabin home, 
after a long ride in the mud from Brandy Sla,tion, and 
confronted by an officer and twenty armed men, who 
espreaaed their readiness lo spill their last drop of blood 
to stay the farther progress of that ambulanee. So the 
poor lady and her unfortunate sponse were forced to turn 
back through more mi!ea of Virginia mud, and seek other 
qunrtera for the night. 

Wagons of eipress-matter, orderlies hurrybg with dis- 
patches, cavalry-men going out to their picket-poata, all 
Borta of locomotivea and locomotors, roll hack ia dismay 
before that fatal barrier. The constancy of that line of 
pickets is really amaaing. K the third corpa atood before 
the onslaught of our common enemy with the heroic valor 
and determination displayed as aliovo against chaplains 
and doctors and women and teamsters, there should he 
no more danger of heaiing ill news of the Array of the 
Potomac. Learning of the^-" transactions of yesterday 
and to-day, the thought irresistibly pressed upon me, if 
Ewell's rebel corps, which the third corps was ordered to 


^^attack wbea ne crossed the Rapidan, had only consisted 
of chaplains and surgeons and ludica and sick persons ia 
I ambulances, and wf^ners in charge of supplj-t rains, how 
i difierent might have been tlio result of that whole trans- 
I Kapidan movement ! After aU, having a. good position 
1 ia eonaderable in warfare. These br.ive fellows have a 
I portion of the second corps between them and the enemy. 
Woe therefore to any lady or mule-driver who attempts 
I now to hreaJi through then; lines ! 

Thus much of inconvenience and disturbance and an- 
noyance as the result of persuntd jeaJoueiea and pique 
; amongst the higher officers of onr army. Add in the 
alcoholic element, and you get to tho bottoni of all our 
i troubles and ill snceess vezy neatly. 
I In case this missive shall be able to pass through this 

I ibrmidable barrier in our rear, you will learn, dear " Re- 
I publican, " that I remain, even in the most desperate 
beleagnermeat, your affectionate Dunn Browne. 


I see in the " Washington Chronicle " of t&<lay that 
the third corps came up ta the Eapidan on Saturday, laid 
down a pontoon-bridge, crossed over after great opposition, 
repulsed the enemy, after a two-hours' spirited contest, 
with great slaughter and the loss of a host of prisoners, 
&c. ; and that tlie second corps came up towards night, 

„ affiirded some upport to the third : and so, on 




^^ less 

whole, things were all right, the recDnDoi^aiioe sic- 
oeasfiil, the object accomplished. You know my great 
regard for the third corps, and especially my high appre- 
ciatios of their rocent opcrationB in the rear of onr own 
brigade in cutting off our communications with the 
of our corps and the anny, and reaatbg with tbi' 

loat valor and oonatancy the advent of certain surgeons, 

iplains, and ladies, to our camp, and so would be ready ta 
Te«d the above B*!COunt of the " Chronicle," doubtless, with 
tbo utmost confidence in its troth. But I am pained to say 
that there are one or two alight mistakes therein, neverthe- 
less; and that the tlilrd corps, instead of crossing tbo 

ipidan, repuldng the enemy with great elaughter, and 

in being supported by the second corps, is stiU eonfin- 
Ing its operationa to our rear. Its crosang of the Randan, 
as well aa tbo pontoon-bridge on whioh it eroased, is "all 
in the eye " of the veracious writer of the above dlspatdi, 

The pontoons wore ordered up on Safcurdny ; and if 
they hud arrived in time to be made into a bridge, and 
the third corps had been ordered to cross on them, it would 
have done so, and done Itself credit against 

itever enemy appeared to resist them. But the pontoons 
stuck in the mud half a mile back of the river ; and the 
second corps, being ordered to make a demonstration on 
the other side the Rapidan, sent over its third divisiHi 
wading tlie river tbree feet in depth and icy 

Id (our gallant old general, Hayes, set a iamooa exam- 


pie, dismountiiig and wading two or three tiniiiB across), 
captured a few priaonera of the enemy's picket, and 
adTanced, deployed as skirmishers, ahoat a mile into the 
enemy's coimtry. under fire from his hatterioB, and finally 
took up a position in front of tbo enemy's eartbworkB, bnt 
screened somewhat from their fire, and lay till night. Just 
at dusk, the reheU made a furious attack upon our line, 
evidently intending to driye ua into the river : hut the old 
third division was too much chilled by the first crossing to 
wish to do it again in the dark in groat haste, and so 
turned to it with a wil!, ropulscd the enemy'a attaek, aod 
drove thorn ahont a mile farther back and to the right, 
exposed a good deal of the way to a flanking fire fi™n the 
batteries (wc had no artElery at all over the river, owing 
to the non-arrival of the pontoons), and cleaned out a 
whole nest of hoosea and out-buildinga which were filled 
with graybacks ; and finally paused only when they came 
agiunsE a full line of battlo of the enemy posted behind 
their works. Our hoys being only a line of skirmish erg, 
and having gotten a good deal mixed up in the darkness, 
and having fired into each other a number of times by 
mistake, halted, throw out a picket, collected the dead and 
wounded, and at midnight withdrew across the river with- 
out opposition ; a part of ow Kecond division crossing on a 
temporary bridge of trees and rails to cover the retreat 
of the third. 




The lose of the diyisioii iras between two and tline 
idrcd, one-balf of whleli was sustained by the 14tb 
iDnecticut, whicli was in the thickest of the melh about 
clmup of houses, and fought in many instances hand 
Hand with the enemy; having seven officers and eighty- 
men wounded, eighteen miesiDg, killed, or prisoo- 
nd s\\ kUled whose bodies were brought off the 
field. Many others are mortally wounded. This rogi- 
it wil! be thus seen, has suffered as much as in a 
;tle of the first magnitude, mourniog the loss' of many 
her bravest and best. Still the affair, I suppose, must 
called only a reconnoiaaanoo, and may have not a feath- 
s weight upon tho issue of the great conflii-t. I don't 
know that any thing whatever has been accompliahed in 
this " three-days' demonstration against the enemy along 
the lino of tho Rapidan " which Gen. Sedgwick was or>- 
idered to make, but hope that it is not utterly in vain, as, 
part of it at least, it has been with a very conad- 
crable loss of valuable men. The camp of oar brigade 
has about a dozen ladies within it, who behaved with the 
utmost coolness through the trying time, several of them 
witnessing tho greater part of the fight from the hill above 
the camp, and having thus an experience that rarely falls 
to the lo* of the gentler sex. 


You will doubtless get a clearer idea of the operations 
along our line, as a whole, before this reaches you, than I 
have data to give ; though, if the above account in the 
** Chronicle " be a fair specimen of the news you get, it 
will bear a trifle of correction. 




WE had a real dodicatinu yesterday of a house 
of God, thirty feet by eighteen, built of logs, 
plastered with mud, (tovered with canvaa furnished by 
the ChristiaD CoramisaioD, pcwod with loog faeDobes, aod 
able to accommodate a hundred and fifty poople with 
comfort. It seemed actually like " going to meeting " 
again; for we had a dozen ladies in the audience, good 
singing, a good sermon, and good worship every way. 
When the chapter describing the glorious dedloation of 
Solomon's temple was read, it oc>?urred to me that there 
was something of a contrast between the scene at Jerusa- 
lem and our bmmble dedication-service on the bank of the 
Rapidan. But " all the people sdd Amen," I think, in 
both cases; and if tho Spirit of the Lord filled with a 
clond of glory that temple built of fragrant cedar over- 
laid with shining gold, perhaps he waa equally present 
with us in our temple of riven pine overlaid with "Virginia 

Eeligious services yesterday ; a military pageant to- 
day, — a grand cavalry review of Gen. Merritt's and Gen, 



Kilpatrick's diviaions. It was a right LrilLiaat and iiuposiog 
Bpectacle, and honored by the presence of a prettj large 
number of infantry, and lady spectators. Gren. Pleos- 
onlon was the re vie wing-officer, and made uncommonly 
good time in moving down his two-miles line of troops, and 
up in their rear, as the day waa cold and bitter, and a flake 
of snow falling occasionally. Taking our station not far 
from the reviewingKifficer'a stand, just far enough not to 
see too plainly the dirty hata and uniforms which were 
mixed in with the clean, we saw the apparently endless 
colnmn of riders and tramping steeds pass proudly by, 
till it really seemed as if we had cavalry enough to ride 
into Hiehmond without drawing rein. There is one good 
thing about these grand reviews, anyhow. It gives a 
man confidence in his cause, makes him feel that ho ia 
part of a big thing, to see the ranks of steady veterans 
gathered together in such numbers, and going through 
then: movements with such precision. It doesn't seem 
that any force could resist them. 

We have just heard here of the trees In the road and 
across the ferry which stopped the grand espedition of 
Gen. Butler to take Richmoad. What a pity it was that a 
deserter from our ranks informed the enemy of the danger 
the city was in from the vast force (of about five thousand 
men) of the great Yankee general ! What a comfort it 
wotJd have been to us of the Army of the Potomac, when 
we were ordered to make a demonstratioii along our whole 


Damr bsowne in the asisy. 

fine against the enemy, to cooperate with an important 
roovemoat upon Richmond from tbo other side, if we had 
but known the full amount of Butler's force ; if we had 
had but a mental glimpse of those two whole negro regi- 
t ments ; if we had been cogtuzant of the fact, that there 
I were, in addition to the colored troops, as many as seven or 
it hundred cavahy and moimtcd inlantry ; if we had 
once dreamed that there was also a small brigade of white 
infantry in tho expedition ! It is no wonder the rebel 
capital trembled in its shoes, and its forty thousand inhabit- 
ants began to think of leaving tie city (o i(a fate. It is 
inder that our army of fifty thousand were' atrdght- 
vay ordered to keep Lee occupied, so that he could not 
send re-enforcements to the doomed capital. Our le^ 
ments need not regret the loss of a few hundred killed and 
wounded to afford some humble co-operation to Euch a 
promising movement upon the rebel center. Our starv- 
ing boys on Belle Island bavo no longer rOBBOn to com- 
plain of Govemmeat for neglecting them in their deplora- 
ble condiUon ! Hath not that paternal Government sent 
a force of about five thousand men to deliver them ont of 
the hands of their cruel enemies and captors? Is it a 
wonder that the great Yankee general was exceedingly 
wroth with tho deserter that foiled a plan that otherwiaa 
could scarcely have ftdled of signal auccesa ? Why, the 
enterprise recorded in Scripture of Gideon and his band 
of three hundred, which was crowned with such perfect 


success, wais not, od tbe whole, so promi^g a plan, looked 
at from a merely human point of view, as this over which 
our muilern Benjamin presided, and which came to naught 
because of the trees that had fallen across tho road. 
Cursoa hght oa tho trMtor hands that felled those trees, 
and the Birmingham forges that tamed out the axes that 
were used in the operation, and the blockade-runuera that 
brought them inUt Wilmington, and the Confederate shin- 
plaeters that paid for them I 

There, (liat is the best I can do for you, second hero 
of Now Orleans ! The next timo you go to Richmond, I 
hope you will have a clear road before yon, and at least a 
conple of brigades with you, so aa to make even any at- 
tempt at resistance on tho part of the enomy hopeless. 

Chapter lih. 




GREAT pains are taken to watch over the babita rf 
the privates of tiiia army. The proyoatdepartment 
ifl truly paternal in ihe affectionate interest it diapbiys in 
the boiea which are seat on by ospresa to the dear boya, 
lest they Bhould contain liquors whereby said privates 
Bbonid bo tempted to iutoidcation, to the injury of the 
morale of the army. Why, every mortal bos that the hand 
of love directs to the Boldi^)^boyH is stopped at corps head- 
quarters, and I don't know but at army headquarters too, 
and goes into the vast pile that is always to be seen there 
awaiting the pleasare of the provost-marshal and his minr 
ions to wrench off the cover, ransack the contents, and 
confiscate — trust the provoslrboys for understanding tho 
meaning of that word ! — the liquor that may be found 
therein. Now, all these occasional bottles of "bitters," 
and variously named medicines and alcoholic compounds, 
which come in the express-boses of the whole army, 
together wouldn't make a stream large enough to wet the 
whistle of one ordinary headquarters. But a great princi- 
ple is involved, — tho morals of the army are in danger : 

an3 so the provogt-marabal firmly porfonns his duty. 
IHie boxes may all bo delayed two or three days by thia 
proceaa, and lie exposed in the open air through one or 
tiro soaking rains it nmy well be. But wbo eluill speak 
of such a trifle as that in the &ce of this grand t«niper- 
anae manccuver? These driblets of liquor would do 
le^ harm, likely enough, sprinkled over the whole 
army, than eonfineJ to the uses of the provost-guartls 
simply. But this great tflmperanco measure scorns 
even to notice such insinuations. It is true that about 
half the contents of the boxes and paiikages get broken, 
BpoUed, lost, injured, or stolen, in tho ojioning process. 
Every thing is turned topsy-turvy ; the apples, egga, and 
doughnuts roll out into the dirt; pickle and jam bottles, 
coming to pieces, mingle their contents with silk handker- 
chiefs, flannel shirts, and qnu-es of writing-paper, more 
thao the tastfi of the donors would probably choose ; tho 
packages of t«a, and the pepper-boxes, and the saleratus, 
and the tiny ink-bottle, go into one well-mingled com- 
pound ; and it becomes difficult to tell which are eow-hide 
boots and which mlnce-pies by the time the lid is final- 
ly pressed back to its place by some strong knee, and 
fastened by nails, of which one passes through the toe of a 
slipper that didn't get in quite quickly enough, and an- 
other rains a, vest that mother's hands had made to keep 
her boy warm this eold winter weather. But what are 
these little inconveniences to the private soldier before the 




irorking of this great moral, preventire, reformatory moro- 
ment? 1 am ashamed to speak of a pair of su-doUkr 
boofa coming up missing in one of my boys' boxes kst 
week, when I think that there might have been a bottle 
of pinntation-bitters in that same hos if the boots had been 
lefl^ in it, I did feel a little indignant when I discovered 
hvo boxes in one load entirely empty, and saw the angry 
and grieved faces of the boys that received them ; but it 
was a great consolaiion to reflect that they now certainly 
ooaldn't get drank on tho contents, I nscd fo worry and 
fret to see, ns I have done scores and hnndreds of times, 
boxes more than half empty, and what was left in them all 
flhaken into ono nndistingaishablo and valneless mass, — 
clothing, crockery, and cookery " in one red burial blent." 
3ut I have become more cnhghtened now, and can take 
wider views, having fi'eijuently heard the remark made, 

Well, it would be a great deal better if these privates 
didn't get any boxes frora home : Uncle Sam provides I 
for thera well enough," Then another, "Yes; and, if 
great care wasn't taken, they'd smuggle liquor into the 
flrmy that way, and get drunk." Atthiaatago of the eon- 
rersation, I have noticed that the bottle is usually passed, 
and the interlocutors take another driok. and a shoe of 
"that pudding," and proceed, perhaps, to give their orders 
to the caterer of the mess what things to scad for fkim 

private I when will yon appreciate tho kind care that 


watchra OTOT yonr morals bo cloaely, and takos each pains 
to preserve yoor temperate habita, and keep yott in the 
way wherein yon ought to walk? sister! packing 
witli snch tender care tke war m flannels and socks and 
needlebook, and sandry goodies to eat, in the tight, strong 
box for the darling soldier brother, mixing prayers and 
loying wishes with every package, wrapping each keep- 
sake in sisterly affection and tissue-paper, and anticipating 
the delight with which that brother shall unpack every 
article, — don't trouble your geutlo breast too much attho 
thought of the rongh hands of the provost-guard unpack- 
ing yonr treasures (they are practiced hands, very); for, 
though you may fail to see it, there is a gre^t principle 
involved, and the moral welfare of the army depends upon 
your overcoming your scruples. It is probable that you 
have put a bottle of " old rye " in the lower righlrhand 
comer of that box, nest to the Bible with the marked 
passages in it ; and the temperate habits so earefiilly culti- 
vated in the army must be guarded from evil home-infla- 
ences. father ! nail not up so grimly, with iron bands 
around each end, that box with Christmas- turkey and 
minco-pies, and sundry comforts and luxuries that mother's 
hands have prepaid for the boy at the war. You can 
not bind so fast that provost's ax may not loose, nor in- 
sure that that turkey shall not be a " gone goose " before 
it roaches its intended destination. Ifo matter what 
freight you prepay upon it, the uncertainty that proverbi- 


ally attends all martial matters doth not leave your misshre 
exempt. Grumble not oyermncli. The ways of provost- 
goaids may be very mysterious to you, and this precau- 
tionary temperance measure not fully appreciated by your 
dull intellect ; but that the interests of the country some- 
how demand it, and the army would be straightway 
ruined through the medium of Adams's Express Company 
without this check, take the word of 

Yours affectLonatelj^. 



MaboB 34, 1864. 

I T is a very unpleasant thing about war that there can't 
JL Ije Bome oomibrtable arrangement whereby all the march- 
ing aod fighting should be done in the daytime and in the 
pleasanteat weather. Here we are ordered up nights to get 
under arms ; picketing is kept up during the rainiest 
weatber; and no regard ia had to the nerves or feelings 
of the shakiest and most feminino of us, which by no 
means is identical with the ladies of our camp, who are 
cool as veterans in all our alarms. Now, " hired men," 
at home, are espectcd to lie around i-ainy days, or do 
merely some light in-door jobs ; but Uncle Sam's thirteen 
dollars a month menos "rain or shine," Sundays and 
week days, night^work as wall as day-work, and mighty 
UDoertain about stopping for meals. We've been on the 
qui vive, now, for three days and nighta ; and the air is 
all fuH of uneertaiD i-umors. Sometimes wo are immedi- 
ately to cross tho Rapidan, and attack; sometimes wo tum- 
ble out of our bunks, and fall In in all haste, e:(peettng a 
momentary attack from the enemy, who have erossed in 


it foroo to gobble ua up ; eometimes Kilpatrick is Cir 
in tho rear of tho rebela, und aa the war-trail for Bicb- 
mond. A few minutes later, wo bear he baa Uken 
.(JooilonsviUo. and captured Gen. Lee and Gen. Ewell, 
Testerday, the axth and third corps were over ibe liver ; 
lay tbej have not crossed the river ; and we expect by 
ad that they have not moved at all. So 
to "move at a. moment's notice;"' lie 
■round, onting and sleeping at all hours of the day and 
night; never relaxing our vigilance, or unstrapping the 
ladioa' trunks ; taking out one teacup and knife and fork 
at a time ; and having things so rolled and strapped up, 
that nothing whatsoever thut we want ie to be foand. 
Every thing military is mixed up, east and west and north 
south, pretty much. I hope somebody holds all the 
I, and vrill wind thein up without much tangling, 
^e get into a rerfgned, soldierly way of taking sTeiy 
thing as it oomea, and not worrying over tumulte and 
alarms and reports. We trust that somehow it is aH com- 
ing out right, and so wait with patience, not even knowing 
what part we ourselves are performing in the passing 
soonea and events till we read in the newspapers a day or 

»tWO after. 

The least desdroble thing in the whole world, it seems to 
me, is to b« an Es-Presdent. Why don't these hoDorables 


' nighl 

at a I 

L Every 



who are moving heaven and earth to get the Presidential 
nomination, — scheming, intriguing, bribing, promising, 
lying, ready to sell their souls to uttain the desired goal, — 
why, in the name of conunon sense and experienee, don't 
they reflect npon the end that is before them, — that after 
tho Presidency comes the Ex-PresiJeney? Who would he 
what Pierce, what Buchanan, is now, for aU that a four- 
years' residence at the White House could posaihly involve 
of honor, power, or pleasure '/ Can it ho possible that 
Chase, for inBtanee, would be willing to oxcliango his pre- 
sent position and reputation for the worry and risk and 
weariness of the Presidency, to he followed by the eslin- 
guishment of tho Ei-Presidency ? Por McCIeDan, now, 
the case is different. Tt might be a comfort to him even 
to become an Ex-President. It griovos me to see the papers 
BO filled with talk about tho machinations of eahinet-o£B- 
oera, president, and generals, to oust each other from, and 
Becnre for theraselves, the chances of nomiuatioa to office. 
Can it he true that those whose hearts, heads, and hands 
ought to be fuU of the one great work of carrying the 
Dation through this terrible crisis, and crushing the hopes 
of rebels in arms, are occupied instead with the petty 
prospects of personal ambition, and even ofttimes sacri- 
ficing the welfare of the nation to their private piques and 
jealousies ^ The curse of tho soldiers io arms, and the 
burdened people behind them, will be on all such. The 
corse of God, who hath given them such opportunities and 


ilies. ^iU bo on tbom. The nian irlio shall 
lurawlf most eamestlj and successfully to the end- 
ing of (his Reliullion ; who shall work with an ejo aod 
a heart nuj^le to that great end, forgetting self in his 
•joQQlry. — he \i the one whow name shall be In the 
kearta of ouc children, nnd his praises on their lips. He 
Bhall \» greatt^r and better than a President : he oould 
even aSbnl to be an Es-Pivsident, like the glorious Wash- 
ingtoD and Adaios nnil Jvfierson. 

There ! my refleotiona are interrupted by the approach 
a m'rporat. with two butternut-colored prisoners who 
Be just diwerlwl the enemy's picket-post here at the 
and waded the cold, deep stream, to take refuge 
t our liuetk Tbey are men of some forty years of 
with &milies iu North Carolina, conscripted six 
itbs siuee, and apparently overjoyed at their suceessfol 
loi^of eiecape. whieh, they say, they have been long 
ihing for. They report the one uniform story that we 
every day from such stragglers into our lines, of dis- 
the rebel camps, especially among the North- 
diua troopa. Every eamp is most carefully guarded, 
ty sny ; no man allowed to leave on any excuse ; rations 
short Hiid precarious ; sometimes many days without 
meat, audtfaeuatiny lutof haeon or ftesh beef; their 
:|to}>le artii'le, coru-meal. t take it there must be some- 
thing in all this talk ; but we haven't noticed much dimi- 
fltttion in the spirit with which our enemies fight, as yet 


The ** Kepublican " is getting into much more regular, 
habits in its visits to camp, and is a comfort to very 
many borrowers. I procured one new subscriber the other 
day, and am going to obtain a third when the paymaster 
has visited us ; so thatj among the three of us, we may be 
pretty sure to get all the numbers. So you see its pros- 
pects are good and circulation increasing in these regions. 


THE clerks in the various departments at Washington 
ought to have something done for them ; they oaght. 
They are a mueh-ahnsed, overworked, under-paid, and ill- 
appreciated community; tliey are. You have some infia- 
enoo with some memhera of Congress, I doubt not. I 
hope you will try to do something for them. I wish I 
could adequately represent their ease to yoa, and, throngli 
your columns, to a sympatMmig public. I can't Bay, to 
be sure, that I have a very thorough personal knowledge 
of any of them ; in fact, I have only had a paBsing 
glimpse of one or two : hut I have wandered a good deal 
within n day or two along the outer halls and paaaagea, 
and about tho doorways that lead to their official sanctums, 
and even in the ante-rooms of a few of tho more conde- 
scending of them (standing, of coarse, and with my hat 
off). I have had a good deal of conversation with their 
doorkeepers and orderlies and errand-boys, I have seen 
many of their overeoate, the pegs on which they hang their 
hats; even, inafewmstancce, the very desks and arm-chairs 
whereat and wherein they perform their arduous labors. 


Yea, I believe, upon second thought, that I am too modest 
in EpeakiDg of my acqaaiDtance with this cIogb of public 
fimotioDaries. I have autually stood in the august presence 
of quite a iiumbor of epocimeDfi, and been permiUcd to 
admire the ourt, abrupt, ami very deoiBive auswera they 
give to questions which foolish people, iatereatcd in mat- 
tore perlidning to thcii' various bureaus, persist in asking 
them. It is interesting to observe tho brevity and autho- 
rity with which they dispose of impertinent quCBtiouers, 
and the audacity and presence of mind with which thay 
baffle the attempts eonstaatly made by a meddling public 
to get information from them in lefci'ence to matters per- 
taining to their various departmeuts. In a few instances, 
it really seemed to ine that one would have to impart some 
useCid inibrmation, and answer a question, so as to afford 
some satisfaction to the asker. But no: the difHcully of the 
edtuatdon only afibrded a more briUiant opportunity of suo- 
oesB in extrication. The genius of " how not to do it " 
in each case gloriously triumphed over the temptation to 
do it, and the locution always became a circumlocution. 
If they dispose of all the public business intrusted to them 
as summarily as they dispose of all such individuals of the 
public aa have the impadenee to intrude upon their official 
hours on pretence of important matters, I am sure the 
public would have no reason to complain, though theii- 
five or sis daily " buanesB-hom's " should be curtailed lo 
two or three. The fortress of official dignity is well 


defended. If you break the outer line of skirmifihers that 
defend the extreme walls and the great gates of entrance, 
it is only to find an inner picket-guard posted before each 
successive door, and numerous ditches and abatis of for* 
malitj to impede your every step of progress. K by pa- 
tience and perseverance you penetrate at last into the very 
recesses of the fortress, you find, most likely, not the 
great man himself, but only his factotum, the clerk of the 
clerk, the shadow of the shade ; and if he can not bully 
you into giving up your object, or persuade you that you 
have come to the wrong place to transact your business, 
and the very last door is opened to your importunity, and 
you fancy the garrison must surrender at discretion, you 
find to your disappointment that the hand-to-hand attack 
is a greater failure than the battle afar ofi". Your foe has 
had the experience of years to aid him in resisting such 
attacks as you are making upon him. You have but one 
plain thrust for the attack : he has a thousand cunning 
parries familiar to his hand for the defense. You quickly 
retire discomfited from the presence; and every janitor 
casts a look of malicious triumph after your retiring steps. 


I had a number of matters to attend to in Washington, 
and so saved a day from a very short leave of absence to 
accomplish them. I will only trouble you with one or two 
of the mildor instances of the way I accomplished them. 

Ono tiling was to bunt up in the dead-lotter i 
package of importiint papora, directed to me in tie mail, 
that had BOmohow gone aatray. Notlung easier than tbat; 
oertainlj not, if there were anybody iu the proper office 
to attend to my cuse. But I called at the noble post- 
office building; after some inquiries, found the office of the 

polite Dr. , who attends to that branch of the business; 

was ushered into a fine apartLnent, elegantly furnished; 
and sat down by a cozy fire to wait for the officer, who 
happened to bo out for the moment. It was right io the 
middle of the official day ; but there I sat and waited five 
minates, ten miuutes, wondering whether the head of the 
dead-letter office was a dead-head or no. After about 
fifteen minutes of impatient waifing, for ray buaness 
pressed me (fooUah fellow ! I might just as well have 
waited there by that pleasant firo all tlio day), I rummaged 
round in the adjoining rooms, and aslied ya.rious clerks for 
infi>rmation of the good doctor. " Oh ! he will bo in in a 
few minutes." — "Well, but isn't there any one else who 
can attend to my buaness?" No: there was no one else. 
I must wait a few minutes. Twenty minutes, twenty- 
five minutes, passed, but no Dr. came ; and I left to 

fill fill an appointment in another part of the city. Well, 
it was a small matter that a man should be out of his office 
for twenty-five minutes. Yes; and it was a small 
that I was attending to any way. It was only some 
dooumeats fi>r half a doiien dead soldiers killed at G^t- 


tysburg, which, if I could obtain, I might draw the back 
pay duo to the widows and mothers and orphans. I 
doubt much if I should have gotten the pay, however (in 
one day), if I had found the papers, judging from the rest 
of my experience. Here was one case of failure because a 
clerk wasn't there when I wanted him. Most of my fail- 
ures were because a clerk was there. 

AT THE adjutant-general's OFFICE. 

Judge of this other case I will relate ; about a feir spe- 
cimen of my experience. An errand at the adjutant-gen- 
eral's office. Went up at ten o'clock. Found a fat door- 
keeper. Asked him if I could see any of the assistant 
adjutant-generals or their clerks. No : couldn't see any- 
body on business till eleven o'clock. Departed. Came 
back at eleven. Found a long string of people passing in 
slowly to one of the rooms. Took ray turn. Got a word 
at last with the clerk. Found it wasn't his specialty to 
answer questions of the sort I asked him. Was referred 
by him to another clerk who perhaps could. Went to 
another room. Stopped by a doorkeeper. At last, per- 
mitted to enter, after some other people had come out. 
Stated my case to the clerk at the desk : *' Pay of certain 
officers of my regiment stopped l)y order from your office 
near four months since. No reason assigned. No notice 
given. Come to you for reason." — " Why don't you 
send up your request through the proper military ohnn- 



nets, sirV — ^"Hcq^uest was so sent up eight weeks 
ago, eBclciaing a jireeise copy of tlio ordar issued from 
your own office to tho paymaster. Instead of looking 
in your own office to find the reason of your own 
order, you sent our rai^uest over to tlie pajmastep-gon- 
eral, asking hira wby tho order was issued. He sent it 
back indorsed with the statement, that no such ordur of 
stoppage was recorded in the pay-department. This you 
sent back to us ' through the regular channel ' as eminently 
BBitiHiaetnry. So it would ho, only tho paymaster, having 
your positive order not to pay us, and no order counter- 
manding it, refiiaeB to come down with the greenhaeks. 
Another paper came up to you from us several weeks ago, 
and has not been heard from. Tliis is the progress of 
eight weeks through tlio regular channels." — "Why don't 
yon ask tho paymaster to find out about tho matter?" 
" Wo have done so. lie says he has been repeatedly to 
your office, which, of course, is the only place where infor- 
niatioa can be obtained, and is unable to get any Batisfao- 
tory reply." — " Why don't you go to the ordnance and 
quartermasters departmenta, and seeif your accounts are all 
right there? " — "We have done so, and find it a reasonable 
certainty that no stoppages against us have been ordered 
there. Moreover, they would not stop through your de- 
partment. The order came from you. Tou had a precise 
copy of it sent you with our application. Where could 
we apply for information as to the reason of your acta save 


to you? '' — " Very well : we'll try to look it up." — '*But, 
sir, if you would let a clerk look at your orders of that 
date, and answer us to-day, we can perhaps get our pay; 
otherwise we shall not have access to the paymaster again 
for two or three months." The clerk, utterly disgusted at 
such pertinacity, dismisses us with an appointment to call 
again at two o'clock. He will see what he can do for us. 
Call again at two o'clock. Doorkeeper refuses to let us 
in. No person seen on business after two o'clock. Final- 
ly work our way through with the plea of the special ap- 
pointment. Find, of course, that nothing has been done. 
** What shall be our next course? " — " Oh ! send up 
another paper through the regular channel." 


This is just a fair specimen of my luck through the day, 
only that my answers in this case were a hundred times 
more civil and gentlemanly than the average. The only 
place where my business was passed with promptness and 
dispatch was at the provost-marshal's, whither I went to 
get a pass down " to the front." Every facility is offered, 
I must in candor acknowledge, to him who is on his way 
to put himself in the path of the enemy. It was a real 
comfort to me to have my valise examined for whisky at 
the railroad station. It looked a little as if Grant was 
going to try to keep liquor out of the army ; but my 
confidence in it as a temperance measure was slightly 


impaired when I found that there was about the usual 
amount of the ardent at the commissaries' and the sutlers'. 
An officer's carpet-bag is searched, and his private bottle 
of brandy confiscated ; but he can order a whole case at 
a time brought to his quarters through the sutler, and buy 
whisky at a dollar a gallon of that respectable old rumsel- 
ler, TJncle Samuel, at the commissary's. 

I am afraid this letter is rather long ; but, with so ifciuch 
red-tape in it, how €0uld it b^ otherwise ? 



April 18, 1864. 

RE-ORGANIZATION is the order of the day with 
us just at present. Do you know exactly what 
that is, most sapient of newspapers ? Well, if I may use 
an illustration from the printing-office, it's just knocking 
a form into pi to have the fun of picking out the letters, 
and setting them up over again. It is resolving all crea- 
tion back into chaos, and starting a fresh world on a new 
plan. It is shaking a fair city all down into one promis- 
cuous dust-hoap, and then pulKng out the bricks to rebuild 
it on the ruins. It's shaking a community all up together 
in a huge bag, and then making a new draw for husbands 
and wives, familiar fiiends and neighbors, houses and 
lands, trades, professions, and habits of life. In the new 
arrangement, Mr. Jones may find Mrs. Smith a much 
more agreeable and congenial companion : still I wouldn't 
wonder if the stupid fellow had his prejudices in favor of 
the old copartnership after all. Well, we all hope much 
good will come of the changes that have been made, and 
that the apple-trees are in enough straighter rows now to 
pay for the transplanting of them. The thing we ai-e 


trying to get clear in our heads is, at present, the nnmbers 
of the new hngadee, divisions, and corps that wo holnng 
to, so we can have onr fiiends direct, our letters to us 
withont danger of miscarrying. There is a great eon- 
BumptJon of red, white, and blue flannel ia^changing 
the corps badges ; and heavy requisitions are made in tho 
quartermaster's department for paint to number over tho 
wagons and other public property. 

G}«n. Grant has made about half a dozen attempts to 
review the second corps, hut unBueeeBsfally aa yet, on 
account of the weather. Nature has been " re^irganiz- 
ing " herself here in "Virginia with a general flood, very 
much in the same way as Grant and tho army; and 
livers, lakes, islands, railway-bridges, and oordoroy-roada 
have broken out in new spots, as well as brigadiers. I 
trust tho good old damo and the good new general will 
both be rather indalgent with us till wo get used to run- 
ning under tho " spring arrangement." They have been 
very snecegrful, each of them, in their combinations hith- 
erto. Wo are disposed to trust them Implicitly for the 
forthcoming campaign. Our boys are well satisfied to 
have the rain eomo before we get moved out of our com- 
fortable winter-qnarters, rather than just after. We 
have tried breaking camp, and then getting stuck ia the 
rand, and nndergoing a long eold rain in shelt^r-tenLs ; 
and it is a picnic not at all according to our taste. We 
prefer, on the whole, to have winter come in the winter, 


and the summer confined principally within the limits of 
the summer. 

It appears to me, however, that the years have been 
growing later and later, and the seasons . more and more 
backward in coming to time, for the last decade or two. 
The autumn has pushed itself along into winter's place, 
and winter crowded out the spring, till the'calendar 
quite needs another Julius Caesar or Grregory to "re- 
organize " it. Why should not Grant, now that his "hand 
is in," issue an order on the subject at once, in time to 
have May Day come in appropriately with all her flowers 
and gentle breezes and sunshine and smiles ? The April 
showers, though, have come in due season and in overflow- 
ing abundance ; so there is no ground for complaint on 
that score. 

THE soldiers' COMMUNION. 

April 25. 

We had a very precious day yesterday, and the thought 
of it was a comfort all through the hard work of the 
evening ; for we sat down at the Lord's table, and held 
sweet communion with him and with one another. 
Twelve men (of the 108th New- York mostly, but one or 
two from our regiment) were baptized ; and about twenty- 
jave professed their solemn faith in, and made everlasting 
covenant with, Christ, to be his henceforth. We had a 
Ehort, comprehensive creed and covenant foi' them to 
assent to and take upon themselves ; and then seventy-five 


or eighty, perhaps, partook of the sacrament. I never 
had a sweeter time in my life. I have no douht of the 
perfect propriety of our action in having this season ; for 
the Lord was evidently present to bless. Mr. Grassey 
(108th New-York) was very happy in all his remarks 
and services ; Mr. Murphy (1st Delaware) assisted ; Capt. 
Hawley* and Capt. Price passed the elements. We 
had just our usual soldiers' bread, and the wine in two 
pewter cups, poured from a brown stone pitcher ; and there 
was no white linen to represent that which was wrapped 
around the Saviour's body: but every thing seemed 
decent and in order, and we all enjoyed the season as if 
it were the very institution of the ordinance in that upper 
room in Jerusalem. It was the last service wo shall have, 
I suppose, in our little log-chapel. The roof comes down 
to-day to be carried back to the Christian Commission 
again ; and we worship God in the open air for the sum- 

* This excellent officer was killed in the same series of battles 
in which the writer lost his life. — Ed. 



April 25, 1864. 

IHEAE a good deal said, and read a good deal in the 
newspapers, about the *' treasures we are pouring out 
like water " for the carrying-on of this war; about our 
** vast and unprecedented pecuniary sacrifices and expen- 
ditures ; " and it really seems to me that it is very nearly 
time to be taking some measures to make those statements 
actual facts. We have been carrying on the war over 
three years, and have now spent the revenues of some 
ten generations to come after us. Wouldn't it be well 
enough at last to put our hands into our own pockets, and 
spend some of our own resources ? With all our big talk 
on the subject, I believe the simple matter of fact is that 
we have raised a national revenue for these three years of 
about thirty-three, or perhaps fifty per cent greater than in 
our previous years of peace. I haven't any access to fig- 
ures, and I never remember them when I do ; but, with our 
expenses twelve or fifteen times greater than in peace, we 
certainly haven't doubled our revenues : I am not certain, 
if, on the whole, for the three years taken together, we 
have increased them at all over the old peace standard. 


Wo havo poured out treasures like water, to be sure ; but 
it has hitherto been someliody's else treasures. And as 
we liave spent tbem nmong ourselves, aa ii matter of fact, 
wo have been making a good thing pecuniarily out of our 
" enonnouB patriotic Bacrificea." Hence the great appar- 
ent prosperity and abundance tbroughout the North. We 
have drawn bills oa oni remote posterity, and got them 
cashed, at a heavy discount of course, to pay for the dia- 
monds of the shoddy-contractors' wives, and to lavish in 
every kind of foolish extravagance. The people have 
cried out time and again to he taxed : but, when Congresa 
camo to consider the items of any tas-bill, there has 
always been for every one some special reason for exemp- 
tion ; so that taxes haven't to any extent been laid on. 
A big tax has been just going to l)o laid on liquors for 
two yeara or ao past ; but the whiaky-dealcra have bought 
up and fought off Congreaa, till I lieliove the progress of 
the thing up to this time is, that alt liquors distiUed af)ei 
the end of the present century, or thereabouts, shall pay 
a dollar a gallon into the treasury. The bunk circula- 
tion is going to be taxed ; but although the profits of 
those institutions are far greater than ever before, on 
account of not having to pay specie for that which they 
have once received in specie, they have been too strong for 
Congress so far. And, in generjl, any interest that has 
been strong enough to be able to pay some revenue to the 
Qovemment, if taxed, has also been strong enough to keep 


irom being taxed to any great amount ; leaving only the 
weak intereatH, that aren't of irnich account any way, to 
catoh it heavily : so that, on the whole, we have not yet 
spent any thing on the war pecrraiarily, in spite of all onr 
talk, but, on the contrary, have been borrowing, borrow- 
ing, borrowing, and putting the proceeds, heavily shaved 

The cotton manufacturers . have been making money, 
ever since the war began, with the utmost rapidity. The 
woolen manufacturers and wool-growers have had nothing 
to do but take in and invest their money. The ndlroadB 
never began to have such roeoipta as since we have been 
making these "warlike sacrifices." The farmers never 
received before such prices for provisions. Importers and 
merchants generally never did m well. All corporations 
have waxed fat, and kicked. The coal interest has bad 
every thing its own black and dirty way. Owners of real 
estate have hardly had pockets large enough to hold their 
rents; and every kind of "fancy" stock has blown its 
bubbles, and seen them float away unbursted. Everybody 
ia bound to make a good thing out of this great national 
criaia. And it doesn't aeem as if we were ever going to 
be willing (o pat our hands in our pockets, and pay as wo 
go. Our finances are faat going the same way as those 
of the rebels. Our promises to pay 'are worth about fifty 
cents on a dollar as yet ; that is, we haven't cheated our 
creditors out of only half of what we owe them, and are 


only half bankrapt. The questioii is, Shall we try at all 
to save the remainiag moiety of our national credit, or let 
it quite go ? For decency's sake, don't let us talk about our 
patriotism and our sacrifices so long as we are all seeking 
to make personal gains out of our country's distress, and 
refusing even to tax ourselves enough to half pay the 
interest on our enormously increasing debt. England 
borrowed money, indeed, to carry on her wars ; but, for 
eveiy dollar she borrowed, she raised another dollar at 
least by taxation. Let us do the same, and gold won't 
stay at $1.80 long. Let us refuse to do it much longer, 
and gold wiU not stay at $1.80 either, but it will go out 
of sight entirely, and the rest of our credit with it. 

Please tell ''A. L. P." that I am not intending to 
rival him in a series of poHtico-economical papers, but 
only to give you a plain soldier's view of the ** way things 
are working," and to express my faith, that not even 
spending fi% dollars for knick-knacks at a metropolitan 
fair is going to discharge one's whole duty to his coontiy 
in these times. 


Camp oh the BAPiaAn, May 3, 188*. 

STEPPING out of raj tent yesterday for a moment, 
I saw a huge red cloud sweeping over Pony Moun- 
tain with tremendous rapidity and fiiry; and, before we 
had half done wondering whether it was some stray aurora 
boroalia shooting acroaa Virginia, one of the boys ex- 
cltumed, "That's genuine Virginia mud taking to itself 
wings!" And, siiro enough, our whole eastern horizon was 
darkened with a tornado of dust ; and we sprang to our 
houses to keep them from hroaking their connection with 
the hillfflde on which we are located. What a time we 
did have, to he sure I The principle of gravitation was 
nowhere I The "star of empire" never took its way 
westward with half the velocity with which the barrels 
from onr chimneys, tho hats from our heads, and the can- 
vas from our huts, started on a tour towards the Kocky 
Mountains. We could readily hetieve that the earth was 
whirhsg from west to east aB rapidly as the astronomera 
tell us ; and moreover that she evidently meant to leave na 
behind, this trip at least. Tho many trees that had been 


left BtoDding in and about our camp couldn't withstand tha 
blast for a moment, but broke like pipe^tems before the 
first rash of the tempest ; and woe to the luckless log-hut 
that happened to be squatted in the path of its (itll ! A 
huge pine made kindling-wood of the stately mansion of 
our colonel, grinding to splinters the lender jonng pines 
that composed its walla, as ruthlessly as the porcine mother 
sometimes deToura her offspring. Well for the colonel 
that he was out of his hut at the time on a tour of picket 
duty, or there would have been a likely chance for pro- 
motion to somebody in our regiment. I have heard of 
nobody that was injured, at least seriously; hut the 
"scare" was eonsiderabto, and the dust that filled our 
houBCs, and covered our liediK and clothes and food, some- 
thing like the cloud of aehea that buried Pompeii. Our 
oldest sailors said they never saw any thing like it. The 
tempest soon blew ifself over, however ; and the rain that 
sncoeedeil it was not much more than enough to lay the 
dust. So we speedily repaired damages, and settled into 
our pristine " quiet along the Rapidan." 

To^ay, nevertheless, an order from diviaon headqua^ 
tera has done what the tornado didn't half accomplish; 
namely, has unroofed all our houses, and levelled them to 
the ground. " Gioiog to move," ai-e we ? Oh, no ! not at 
all. But the fact is, we are getting altogether too effemi- 
nate for soldiers. Why should we lie in comfortable dry 
huts, on banks raised from the ground, when thousands 


of acres of sacred Yirgiiiia soil lie all around us, on which 
(with the slight trouble of tearing our houses down) we 
may extend ourselves ? Why indulge in chimneys, when 
it is so much more soldierly to gather round a smoky fire 
out of doors to cook our food and warm ourselves ? Why 
interfere with the providential design of these searching 
spring rains and withering winds by remaining behind 
plastered log-barriers and under tight roo&, when so little 
work will enable us to return to Nature's wild simplicity ? 
Why, actually, some of these ungrateful boys object to 
the bill Senator Wilson is introducing, cutting down their 
ration to the old standard; and declare, that, with the 
present ration (marching), they used last summer fre- 
quently to eat the crackers allowed per day at a single 
meal; and wonder what they will do if it is reduced. 
Now, it is well known (to all the people who stay at home 
and read the newspapers) that no man can possibly eat 
the whole of the bountiful ration that Uncle Sam allows 
his soldiers ; and it is well known to the heads of the war 
bureaus at Washington, as we see by an order issued on 
the subject last year, that it is perfectly easy for the soldier 
to carry twelve days' rations on his person on the march, 
and even, in case of necessity, where the beef is driven 
on the hoof, and there is some green corn to be obtained, 
twenty-four or thirty days' rations. In face of these well- 
known facts, then, how absurd for a soldier to set up the 
statement, that he does, as a matter of fact, often eat a 


wliole day's moicbing ration at a Binglo mcH), and call for 
more, and that no aoldier ever did carry on hia back more 
tlian what he ate in sis days ! How prepoateroug to 
mention the eii'cuni stance, that nineteen out of twenty of 
the enlistfid men spend their whole pay in purchasing 
additions tfl this same extravagantly liheral aUowancc of 
Uncle Sam; and that after a three-dnys' march, on a sup- 
ply of (it may he) eleven days' rations, the usual price 
of hard-tack is a dime apiece ! I have seen hundreds of 
times a dollar offered for half a dozen hard-broads, or for 
a day's ration ; although, of course, a true soldienriU scorn 
to take money from a comrade for any thing to eat that he 
may happen to have over. Does it ever occur to any 
one who is thinking of the liberal rations of our Govern- 
ment to ask whether the soldier, as a matter of fact, gets 
that full allowance ? It is tme, that if the Boldiet had 
all the beans, rice, molasses, potatoes, dried apples, pic- 
kles, hominy, &c., that the regulations allow him, and time 
and skill to cook them properly, he would be able to 
satisfy his appetite very reasonably, and even often have 
something over. But when we come to the marches, the 
hard work of the soldior, his ration is ten eraekers a day 
(a short pound) , and three-fourths of a pound of pork, or 
one and one-quarter pounds of fresh beef of the poorest 
and boniest kind ; and nothing else, escept a small allow- 
ance of sugar and coffee. This hard-bread is frequently 
spoiled by wet, and some part of it nnfit to eat by reason 


of bugs and worms. Now, I affirm, in spite of Glen. 
Wilson, or Gren. Halleck, or anybody else, that this is a 
short ration for a hearty man on a hard march; and that 
when the extra, or ** small rations," as they are called 
(beans, rice, &c.), are not issued, at least twelve or four- 
teen crackers a day should be issued to make the ration 
good. If the soldier obtained in his company fund, as 
the regulations provide, the money-value of these articles 
to which he is entitled, but which are not issued, the 
matter would be better; but, in practice, he seldom dt 
never does that. 


There are several things which I could suggest, as 
measures likely to benefit the boys of our army ; but, 
as my turn has not yet come to take command of the forces, 
they may not be at present adopted. I think, for instance, 
that they ought to be talked to a little more. All the 
great generals of ancient times, and of modern times too, 
have stirred the enthusiasm of their troops on the eve of 
battle by rousing speeches. Xenophon, Hannibal, Scipio, 
CaBsar, eveiybody who wanted to get some great exploits 
out of the troops under his command, has told them what 
he wanted them to do, appealed to their patriotism, their 
religion, their love of glory, or whatever motive might 
most excite them to lofby action. Cromwell stirred up 
the religious enthuMasm of his troops, till no foe of equal 




DomberB could resiBt their grim onseti. NapoleoD, with & 
few fiery sentences, roused hia Frenchmen to the moat ex- 
alted spirit of courage and devotion. Now, no soldiers 
under hearen ever came to war from a more intelligent 
spirit of patriotism than oars ; none with a clearer eenee 
of the principles which lie at the basis of (ho contest in 
which they arc engaged ; none more capable of bemg en- 
couraged and roused to enthusiasm by the lofty enthusi- 
asm of a generous leader. And our nation, of all others, 
has been a nation of perpetual puhhc gatherings and 
speech-makings ; but our generals have s^d never a word 
(I apeak in u general way) to encourage the troops, to 
keep alive their patriotism and regard for the cause, 
\fi cherish that living sympathy which should ever exist 
between a leader and hia troops ; have seemed desirous, on 
the whole, ta make their men mere machines, going into 
battle without knowing any thing where the pinch of the 
contest was, or precisely what was required of them, save 
to go forward at the order "Forward," and fire at the order 

I believe a good deal more might be made by a differ- 
ent course of proceeding ; that our boys are something 
more than Bbootiug-maohmes ; or, if machines, that there 
are strings and pulleys aad wheels in them that mere mili- 
tary orders don't reach, and yet which might have much 
effect in deciding battles, — these great and terrible bat- 
tles that are io decide this opening campdgn, and proba- 


bl; bring tho war to an end, — these coming successes, 
OS we devoatlj hope, that aie to atene for the disgraeefiil 
reverses our arms have this spring saetained in eveij 
quarter where thoj have heen engaged. Oh for power to 
speak a word that might thrill the breast of eveiy Union 
soldier, and rouse in him that holy enthusiasm for our right 
cnuso which uhould make evoij blow struck irresiatible, 
aud carry our arms victorious right into the citadel of re- 
bellion, and conquer a right peace! One or two of Meado's 
modest, earnest orders, published to the amiy near the 
Gottyaburg times, bad a wondorftilly happy effect. I trust 
more may be issued, and that every opportunity may be 
taken to inspire the patriotism and enthuaaam of our 
troops, and keep before their minds the great principles 
which first sent them forth from their peaceful homes to 
fight for endangered liberty and republican government, 
for God, and freedom throughout the world. 

Mat 4, four, p.k. 
So we did make a move of it, after all. Hadn't fairly 
finished cutting down our houses before the order came to 
move. Left camp at ten, p.m., on the anniversary of the 
battle of Chancellorsville ; marched all night ; crossed at 
Ely's Ford at nine this morning; and are now resting on 
the old field of Chanoelloraville. 

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